新陈代谢和胰岛素 + 激活方式

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AMPK: Metabolism & Insulin + Ways to Activate

AMPK is an energy sensor that, when activated in certain tissues, has many beneficial effects on our bodies. It stimulates the metabolism, improves insulin sensitivity, decreases inflammation, and improves muscle performance. AMPK is also involved in several longevity pathways and may promote healthy aging.

AMPK 是一种能量传感器,当在某些组织中被激活时,对我们的身体有许多有益的影响。它刺激新陈代谢,改善胰岛素敏感性,减少炎症,并提高肌肉性能。AMPK 还参与多种长寿途径,可能促进健康老龄化。

AMPK: The Energy Enzyme 能量酶

AMPK (5′ AMP-activated protein kinase) is an enzyme that plays a key role in energy balance. All creatures from yeast to humans have this enzyme [1].

AMPK (5′ AMP活化蛋白激酶)是一种在能量平衡中起关键作用的酶。从酵母到人类的所有生物都有这种酶[1]。

AMPK can detect the level of energy (number of ATP molecules) in a cell and helps regulate responses when it gets too low or high.

AMPK 可以检测细胞中的能量水平(ATP 分子数量) ,并在细胞能量过低或过高时帮助调节反应。

AMPK is produced in a number of tissues, including the liver, brain, fat cells and muscle [1].

AMPK 在许多组织中产生,包括肝脏、大脑、脂肪细胞和肌肉[1]。

While much of AMPK activity is dependent on external factors such as diet and exercise we all have a genetic disposition inherited from our parents.

虽然大多数 AMPK 活性依赖于外部因素,如饮食和锻炼,但我们都有遗传自父母的遗传倾向。

Health Effects of AMPK Activation AMPK 激活对健康的影响

1) Increases Metabolism 1)增加新陈代谢

AMPK in the hypothalamus senses our level of energy production in the body (in the form of ATP). It increases energy expenditure and can also increase appetite (when it is activated in the hypothalamus) [2].

AMPK 在下丘脑感觉我们身体的能量产生水平(以 ATP 的形式)。它可以增加能量消耗,也可以增加食欲(当它在下丘脑被激活时)。

When cellular energy is low, AMPK is activated and targets a range of processes, the net response of which is an increase in energy production and a coordinated decrease in energy (ATP) usage [3].

当细胞能量较低时,AMPK 就被激活并作用于一系列过程,其净反应是能量产生的增加和能量(ATP)使用的协调减少。

Hypothalamic AMPK increases appetite, increases glucose production and uptake, reduces heat production, and decreases energy output [2].

下丘脑 AMPK 增加食欲,增加葡萄糖生产和摄取,降低热量生产,减少能量输出[2]。

2) Produces and Burns Sugars 2)生产和消耗糖

Glucose is the main source of energy for the body and is particularly essential for normal brain activity. Hypoglycemia, a condition in which the blood glucose drops below normal levels, poses a great danger to the stability and functioning of the brain and therefore activates AMPK [2].

葡萄糖是身体能量的主要来源,对于正常的大脑活动尤其重要。低血糖是血糖低于正常水平的一种情况,对大脑的稳定性和功能构成极大的危险,因此可激活 AMPK [2]。

Hypothalamic AMPK activation promotes glucose production from the liver [2] and glucose uptake into the muscles [4].

下丘脑 AMPK 激活促进葡萄糖生产从肝脏[2]和葡萄糖摄取进入肌肉[4]。

AMPK inhibits glucose storage (glycogen synthesis), resulting in more glucose being available for energy production [4].

AMPK 抑制葡萄糖储存(糖原合成) ,导致更多的葡萄糖可用于能量生产[4]。

In various cells, AMPK stimulates the breakdown of glucose for energy (in the form of ATP) [4].

在各种细胞中,AMPK 刺激葡萄糖的能量分解(以 ATP 的形式)[4]。

3) Burns Fat 3)燃烧脂肪

AMPK inhibits the production of fatty acids, cholesterol, and triglycerides, and instead stimulates the breakdown and burning of existing fat for energy [4].

AMPK 抑制脂肪酸、胆固醇和甘油三酯的生成,反而刺激现有脂肪的分解和燃烧以提供能量[4]。

4) Inhibits Protein Production 4)抑制蛋白质生成

Protein production is a high-energy process that is inhibited during low energy states to conserve energy. Therefore, it is not surprising that AMPK inhibits protein production [4].

蛋白质的生产是一个高能量的过程,在低能量状态下被抑制以保存能量。因此,AMPK 抑制蛋白质生成就不足为奇了。

Inhibiting excessive protein production results in a much more energy-efficient and less wasteful cell.

抑制过量的蛋白质生产,可以产生更节能、更少浪费的细胞。

5) Promotes Cellular Recycling (Autophagy) 5)促进细胞再循环(自噬)

Autophagy is the process of recycling cellular components. This process promotes molecular and cell subunit quality control by degrading damaged or misfolded proteins and even damaged mitochondria [3].

自噬是回收细胞组分的过程。这个过程通过降解受损或错误折叠的蛋白质,甚至破坏线粒体来促进分子和细胞亚单位的质量控制。

Autophagy can contribute to energy generation by providing fuel for mitochondrial metabolism, and AMPK promotes this process [4].

自噬通过为线粒体新陈代谢提供燃料而促进能量的产生,AMPK 促进这一过程[4]。Coronavirus Causing Extra Stress? Get 36 Natural Remedies To Reduce Anxiety 冠状病毒造成的额外压力? 获得36种自然疗法来减轻焦虑

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冠状病毒的流行导致了许多额外的压力和焦虑,这实际上会削弱你的免疫系统,使你处于更大的危险之中。下载无压力指南,发现天然补充剂和生活方式的建议,旨在帮助你战胜压力和改善你的心情。REDUCE STRESS 减轻压力Coronavirus Causing Extra Stress? Get 36 Natural Remedies To Reduce Anxiety 冠状病毒造成的额外压力? 获得36种自然疗法来减轻焦虑

The Coronavirus pandemic is causing a lot of extra stress and anxiety, which can actually weaken your immune system and put you more at risk. Download the Stress Less guide to discover natural supplement and lifestyle recommendations designed to help you beat stress and improve your mood. 

冠状病毒的流行导致了许多额外的压力和焦虑,这实际上会削弱你的免疫系统,使你处于更大的危险之中。下载无压力指南,发现天然补充剂和生活方式的建议,旨在帮助你战胜压力和改善你的心情。REDUCE STRESS 减轻压力

6) Regulates the Mitochondria 6)调节线粒体

AMPK is capable of both acute and long-term improvement of mitochondrial activity [3].

AMPK 具有急性和长期改善线粒体活性的能力[3]。

AMPK also regulates the production and turnover of mitochondria. Loss of AMPK in mice reduces mitochondrial activity and greatly diminishes muscle performance [3].

AMPK 还调节线粒体的产生和更新。腺苷酸活化蛋白激酶的缺失降低了小鼠的线粒体活性,大大降低了肌肉性能[3]。

7) Acts as an Antioxidant 7)充当抗氧化剂

AMPK has a crucial role in increasing antioxidant defense during oxidative stress [4].

AMPK 在氧化应激期间增强抗氧化防御中起着至关重要的作用。

AMPK increases the production of several antioxidant proteins, such as NRF2superoxide dismutaseand uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) [4].

AMPK 可以增加几种抗氧化蛋白的产生,例如 NRF2、超氧化物歧化酶和解偶联蛋白蛋白2(UCP2)。

8) Helps With Oxygen Delivery 8)帮助氧气输送

Upon hypoxia (low oxygen) at altitude or during sleep, activation of AMPK may protect against acute breathing instability. Loss of AMPK was shown to cause breathing dysfunction during hypoxia in mice [5].

在高原低氧或睡眠时,AMPK 的激活可以防止急性呼吸不稳定。AMPK 的缺失被证明会导致小鼠缺氧时的呼吸功能障碍[5]。

Variations of gene components of AMPK has been found in high-altitude Andean populations, presumably in order to improve survival in low oxygen conditions [5, 6].

在高海拔的安第斯山居民中发现了 AMPK 基因组成的变异,可能是为了改善在低氧条件下的生存[5,6]。

9) Important for Fertility 9)对生育能力很重要

In several animal species, AMPK increases the production of sex hormones [7].

在一些动物物种中,AMPK 增加了性激素的产生[7]。

The absence of AMPK leads to reduced fertility in both sexes [7].

AMPK 的缺失导致两性生育能力的降低[7]。

10) Increases Blood Flow 10)增加血液流动

AMPK plays a critical role in increasing blood flow through vasodilation (widening of the blood vessels), by stimulating nitric oxide release in blood vessels [8].

AMPK 通过刺激血管中一氧化氮的释放,在增加血流量(扩张血管)中发挥关键作用。

11) May Promote Healthy Weight 11)有助保持健康体重

AMPK outside of the brain increases fat burning, and this pathway can result in weight loss [9].

脑外的 AMPK 增加脂肪燃烧,这种途径可以导致体重减轻[9]。

By contrast, AMPK activation in the brain increases appetite. In mice, when the activity of brain/hypothalamic AMPK was inhibited, the mice ate less and lost weight. When AMPK activity was raised the mice ate more and gained weight [10].

相比之下,大脑中 AMPK 的激活增加了食欲。小鼠脑/下丘脑 AMPK 活性受到抑制时,食量减少,体重下降。当 AMPK 活性增加时,小鼠进食量增加,体重增加[10]。

Ghrelin, the hunger hormone, stimulates AMPK in the hypothalamus [11].

饥饿激素——饥饿激素,刺激下丘脑中的 AMPK。

12) May Promote Longevity 12)可以延长寿命

AMPK activation gradually declines during aging. Some researchers believe that the age-related increase in chronic inflammation levels is responsible for the suppression of AMPK activity [4].

AMPK 活性在衰老过程中逐渐下降。一些研究人员认为,与年龄有关的慢性炎症水平的增加是腺苷酸活化蛋白激酶活性抑制的原因。

Activating AMPK may help multiple longevity pathways and promote healthy aging [3].

激活 AMPK 可能有助于多种长寿途径,并促进健康老龄化[3]。

Many studies have shown that AMPK plays a crucial role in increasing longevity and calorie restriction-induced lifespan extension in worms, fruit flies, and rodents [4].

许多研究表明,AMPK 在延长蠕虫、果蝇和啮齿类动物的寿命和限制热量摄入引起的寿命延长方面起着至关重要的作用。

In worms, AMPK activation can increase lifespan by as much as 15% [12].

在蠕虫中,AMPK 激活可以延长多达15% 的寿命。

AMPK increases longevity by reducing protein production [3] and enhancing autophagy [3].

AMPK 通过减少蛋白质的产生和促进自噬来延长寿命。

Longevity Pathways of AMPK

腺苷酸活化蛋白激酶的长寿途径

  • AMPK activates longevity FOXO proteins [ AMPK 激活长寿 FOXO 蛋白[3]
  • AMPK activates the master antioxidant regulator AMPK 激活主要的抗氧化调节剂 NRF2 [4]
  • AMPK inhibits the ‘master regulator’ of lipogenesis SREBPc [ AMPK 抑制脂质合成的“主调节因子” SREBPc [3]
  • AMPK inhibits AMPK 抑制mTOR indirectly [ 间接地3]

Longevity research is a contentious and controversial field, and the precise role of AMPK in determining lifespan is unknown. Much more research is required to determine this enzyme’s role in aging and longevity.

长寿研究是一个有争议的领域,AMPK 在确定寿命中的确切作用还不清楚。还需要更多的研究来确定这种酶在衰老和寿命中的作用。

14) Helps Decrease Inflammation 14)帮助减少炎症

AMPK can both decrease inflammation and be decreased by inflammation.

腺苷酸活化蛋白激酶(AMPK)既可以减轻炎症反应,又可以通过炎症反应降低。

AMPK also exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects. AMPK inhibits inflammation by indirectly inhibiting NFκB, a key activator of inflammation [4].

AMPK 还具有强有力的抗炎作用。 AMPK 通过间接抑制 nf b (炎症的关键激活因子)来抑制炎症。

While AMPK could have many beneficial effects in chronic inflammation, it is typically reduced in such states.

虽然 AMPK 在慢性炎症中可能有许多有益的作用,但在这种状态下它通常会减少。

15) Improves Diabetes 15)改善糖尿病

AMPK activation improves insulin sensitivity [4].

AMPK 激活提高胰岛素敏感性[4]。

AMPK deficient mice showed impaired glucose tolerance [13].

缺乏 AMPK 的小鼠表现出葡萄糖耐受不良。

Metformin, an activator of AMPK, is the most frequently prescribed antidiabetic drug for type-2 diabetic patients [4].

二甲双胍是 AMPK 的激活剂,是2型糖尿病患者最常用的抗糖尿病药物[4]。

16) Benefits the Heart 16)对心脏有益

The activation of AMPK also performs a protective role in cardiovascular diseases [14].

AMPK 的激活在心血管疾病中也起保护作用[14]。

17) Increases Testosterone 17)增加睾丸激素

AMPK can increase male hormones/androgens in human cells [15]. However, metformin (AMPK activator) is commonly given to women with PCOS to a good effect (PCOS is a condition with higher male hormones); much more research is required to determine AMPK’s role in testosterone production.

AMPK 可以增加人体细胞中的雄性激素[15]。然而,二甲双胍(AMPK 激活剂)通常用于 PCOS 患者,以达到良好的效果(PCOS 是一种男性荷尔蒙较高的情况) ,还需要更多的研究来确定 AMPK 在睾酮生成中的作用。

A Role in Neurodegenerative Disease? 在神经退行性疾病中扮演的角色?

AMPK has both protective and contributing properties when it comes to neurodegenerative diseases, and studies often come to opposing conclusions regarding this enzyme and its role.

AMPK 对神经退行性疾病有保护作用和促进作用,对这种酶及其作用的研究经常得出相反的结论。

In mice with Alzheimer’s, activation of AMPK by metformin was shown to increase amyloid-beta protein (Aβ) levels and therefore contribute to the disease [3].

在患有阿尔茨海默病的老鼠中,二甲双胍激活 AMPK 可以增加 β 淀粉样蛋白(a)的水平,从而导致疾病的发生[3]。

However, Aβ generation was also shown to be increased in AMPK deficient mice [13]. Furthermore, AMPK activation by resveratrol and AICAR also decreased Aβ secretion [3].

然而,在 AMPK 缺陷的小鼠中也发现有一代的增加。此外,白藜芦醇和 AICAR 对 AMPK 的激活也降低了 a 的分泌。

Indeed, the inactivation of AMPK was linked to increased Alzheimer’s risk in obese patients with type 2 diabetes [3].

事实上,AMPK 的失活与患有2型糖尿病的肥胖患者阿尔茨海默氏症的风险增加有关。

In mice with Huntington’s disease, AMPK activation promoted neuronal loss and brain decay [3]. But then again, another study showed that treatment with metformin significantly prolonged survival time in rodents with this disease [12].

在患有亨廷顿病的小鼠中,AMPK 的激活促进了神经元的丢失和脑衰退[3]。但是,另一项研究表明,二甲双胍治疗可以显著延长患有这种疾病的啮齿动物的存活时间。

Genetic activation of AMPK was also shown to protect against neuronal loss in Parkinson’s disease models in flies [3].

AMPK 的基因激活也被证明可以防止在果蝇的帕金森病模型中神经元的丢失。Overactivation or underactivation of AMPK may each contribute to neurodegenerative disease, and the safest bet is to lead a healthy and balanced life. More research is needed. 腺苷酸活化蛋白激酶的过度激活或不激活都可能导致神经退行性疾病,最安全的办法是过一种健康平衡的生活。还需要更多的研究

A Role in Cancer? 在癌症中的作用?

The role of AMPK in cancer is complicated and poorly understood [4].

腺苷酸活化蛋白激酶(AMPK)在癌症中的作用是复杂的,人们对其了解甚少[4]。

AMPK activation can protect against DNA damage from oxidative stress. This would protect against tumor initiation [4].

腺苷酸活化蛋白激酶可以保护 DNA 免受氧化应激的损伤,这可以防止肿瘤的发生[4]。

It’s also anti-cancer by inhibiting mTOR [4].

它也是通过抑制 mTOR 来抗癌的。

On the other hand, AMPK promotes glucose/energy uptake by cells, a process which can be hijacked by tumors once they have formed [4].

另一方面,AMPK 促进细胞对葡萄糖/能量的摄取,一旦肿瘤形成,这个过程就会被抑制。

Given the above, some researchers have suggested that AMPK activation is beneficial for cancer prevention, but not necessarily for cancer treatment [4].

有鉴于此,一些研究人员认为 AMPK 的激活有利于癌症的预防,但不一定有利于癌症的治疗[4]。

AMPK activation by its activators (AICAR and metformin) increased UVB-induced DNA repair in normal human skin cells. Topical treatment with AICAR and metformin not only delayed the onset of UVB-induced skin tumor formation but also reduced the number of tumors in mice [16].

AMPK 激活剂(AICAR 和二甲双胍)增强紫外线 b 诱导的正常人皮肤细胞 DNA 修复。AICAR 和二甲双胍局部治疗不仅延缓了紫外线 b 诱导的皮肤肿瘤的形成,而且减少了小鼠的肿瘤数量[16]。AMPK activation seems to be beneficial for cancer prevention, but not for cancer treatment. More research is needed. 腺苷酸活化蛋白激酶的激活似乎有助于癌症的预防,但对于癌症的治疗却无效。需要更多的研究

Potential Negatives of AMPK

AMPK 的潜在负性

AMPK can suppress PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma [17], two important proteins that regulate metabolism and gene expression.

AMPK 可以抑制调节代谢和基因表达的两种重要蛋白质 PPAR alpha 和 PPAR gamma [17]。

Activating AMPK (outside of the brain) 激活 AMPK (大脑外部)

Healthy diet and exercise are the necessary first steps to a healthy lifestyle, and they’re also the most reliable bet for weight loss. Before adopting any other strategies, talk to your doctor about the best ones for you.

健康的饮食和锻炼是健康生活方式的必要的第一步,也是减肥最可靠的赌注。在采取任何其他策略之前,和你的医生谈谈最适合你的方法。

Best AMPK Activators 最佳 AMPK 激活剂

1) Exercise

1)锻炼

Exercise uses energy (in the form of ATP), and the resulting lack of energy stimulates AMPK [2].

运动使用能量(以 ATP 的形式) ,由此产生的能量缺乏刺激 AMPK [2]。

AMPK is stimulated by muscle contraction. High-intensity exercise significantly increases the activity of AMPK in healthy humans [2].

高强度运动可以显著增加健康人体内 AMPK 的活性[2]。

Many beneficial effects of exercise are carried out through AMPK, such as the insulin-sensitizing effect [4].

运动的许多有益作用是通过 AMPK 实现的,例如胰岛素增敏作用[4]。

2) Calorie Restriction

2)卡路里限制

Calorie restriction has been associated with many beneficial effects on aging, diabetes, and cancer. Some of these effects are mediated by AMPK. It was shown that calorie restriction activates AMPK through multiple mechanisms [4].

卡路里限制对衰老、糖尿病和癌症有很多有益的作用。其中一些影响是由 AMPK 介导的。研究表明,卡路里限制通过多种机制激活 AMPK。

Overeating inhibits AMPK, and AMPK activity is decreased in obese individuals [4].

过量饮食抑制 AMPK,而 AMPK 活性在肥胖个体中降低[4]。

High glucose levels, high levels of amino acids, especially branched-chain amino acids, and excess saturated fat inhibit AMPK. Elevated insulin also inhibits AMPK [4].

高葡萄糖水平,高水平的氨基酸,特别是支链氨基酸,和过多的饱和脂肪酸抑制 AMPK。胰岛素升高也会抑制 AMPK [4]。

Calorie restriction stimulates adiponectin secretion from fat cells. Adiponectin activates AMPK in multiple tissues, including skeletal muscles [4].

卡路里限制刺激脂肪细胞分泌脂联素,脂联素激活包括骨骼肌在内的多种组织中的 AMPK。

Adiponectin secretion is significantly reduced in obese individuals, which partially explains reduced AMPK activity in these individuals [4].

肥胖者脂联素分泌明显减少,这部分解释了这些个体 AMPK 活性降低的原因[4]。

3) Decrease Inflammation

3)减少炎症

AMPK can both decrease inflammation and be decreased by inflammation, so it’s important to address any underlying inflammatory conditions.

AMPK 既可以减少炎症,也可以通过炎症降低,因此解决任何潜在的炎症状况是很重要的。

Anti-inflammatory cytokines activate AMPK, while pro-inflammatory cytokines suppress it [3].

抗炎细胞因子激活 AMPK,而促炎细胞因子抑制 AMPK [3]。

AMPK suppression in chronic inflammation contributes to insulin resistance. Reduced AMPK activity was associated with increased inflammation in the organ fat tissue and insulin resistance in morbidly obese individuals [4].

AMPK 在慢性炎症中的抑制有助于胰岛素抵抗。AMPK 活性降低与病态肥胖个体器官脂肪组织炎症和胰岛素抵抗增加有关[4]。

4) Cold Exposure

4)寒冷暴露

In rats, exposure to cold increased AMPK activation in the hypothalamus and stimulates food intake. This effect has not been reproduced in humans [18].

在老鼠中,暴露于寒冷增加了下丘脑 AMPK 的激活并刺激了食物的摄入。这种效应还没有在人类身上重现[18]。

5) Lipoic acid

5)硫辛酸

α-Lipoic acid (ALA) may activate AMPK in muscles and other tissues, though its precise mechanism and effects have not been sufficiently investigated. Some studies have suggested that ALA may decrease hypothalamic AMPK, which could help reduce appetite and food intake [19, 13].

– 硫辛酸(ALA)可激活肌肉和其他组织中的 AMPK,但其确切机制和作用尚未得到充分的研究。一些研究表明 ALA 可能降低下丘脑 AMPK,这可能有助于降低食欲和食物摄入量[19,13]。

Natural Supplements 天然补品

These supplements have not been approved by the FDA for medical use and generally lack solid clinical research. Regulations set manufacturing standards for them but don’t guarantee that they’re safe or effective. Speak with your doctor before supplementing.

这些补充剂还没有被 FDA 批准用于医疗用途,通常缺乏可靠的临床研究。法规为它们制定了生产标准,但并不能保证它们是安全有效的。在补充之前和你的医生谈谈。

That said, numerous polyphenols have been found to activate AMPK in cell and animal studies. These include:

尽管如此,在细胞和动物研究中已发现许多多酚类物质能够激活 AMPK,其中包括:

Hormone Pathways 激素途径

These hormone pathways stimulate and regulate AMPK activation in everyday life. Maintaining a healthy diet and exercising regularly is the best way to keep each of these hormones in balance.

这些激素途径在日常生活中刺激和调节 AMPK 的激活。保持健康的饮食和有规律的锻炼是保持这两种激素平衡的最好方法。

1) Adiponectin

1)脂联素

Fat cells produce adiponectin [13], which serves as a starvation signal [2].

脂肪细胞产生脂联素,作为饥饿信号[2]。

In fasting, adiponectin increases and stimulates AMPK, leading to the induction of food intake and reduction of energy expenditure. After refeeding, a decrease in adiponectin level is accompanied by blunted AMPK activity [2].

空腹时,脂联素增加并刺激 AMPK,导致食物摄入的诱导和能量消耗的减少。再喂养后,伴随着脂联素水平下降的是 AMPK 活性的钝化[2]。

2) Leptin

2)瘦素

Leptin, the satiety hormone secreted by fat cells in the presence of insulin, prevents overeating by inhibiting AMPK in the hypothalamus to suppress appetite [4]. It also activates AMPK in muscle [4].

瘦素,脂肪细胞在胰岛素存在时分泌的饱腹感激素,通过抑制下丘脑中的 AMPK 抑制食欲来防止过度进食。它还能激活肌肉中的 AMPK。

3) Thyroid hormone T3

3)甲状腺激素 T3

The thyroid hormone T3 increases cellular oxygen consumption and activates AMPK in the muscles [50].

甲状腺激素 T3增加细胞耗氧量,激活肌肉中的 AMPK。

4) Nitric Oxide

4)一氧化氮

Nitric oxide activates AMPK [51, 52].

一氧化氮激活 AMPK [51,52]。

Drugs 药物

The drugs discussed here have not been approved for the purpose of activating AMPK. Do not use medications without a prescription from your doctor.

这里讨论的药物还没有被批准用于激活 AMPK。如果没有医生的处方,不要使用药物。

1) Metformin

1)二甲双胍

Metformin is a blood-sugar-lowering agent. It is widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes [13].

二甲双胍是一种降血糖药,广泛用于治疗2型糖尿病[13]。

AMPK mediates many of the antidiabetic actions of metformin: stimulation of fat burning and glucose uptake, and decreased fat production and liver glucose production [19].

AMPK 介导许多二甲双胍的降糖作用: 刺激脂肪燃烧和葡萄糖摄取,减少脂肪生产和肝脏葡萄糖的产生[19]。

2) Aspirin

2)阿司匹林

Salicylate is a direct activator of AMPK [19].

水杨酸盐是 AMPK 的直接激活剂[19]。

Aspirin reduces circulating free fatty acids and TG levels in obese patients with type-2 diabetes and increases fat breakdown during fasting in healthy humans, which can be explained by the direct effect of aspirin on AMPK activation [4].

阿司匹林降低2型糖尿病肥胖患者的循环游离脂肪酸和甘油三酯水平,增加健康人空腹时脂肪分解,这可以用阿司匹林对 AMPK 活化的直接作用来解释[4]。

Hypothalamic AMPK 下丘脑 AMPK

Activating AMPK in the brain (hypothalamus) has the opposite effect as it does when activating it in the liver, fat, and muscles. Activating AMPK in the brain increases appetite and may increase weight gain. When it’s activated in non-brain tissue, it promotes fat burning.

激活大脑(下丘脑)中的腺苷酸活化蛋白激酶有相反的作用,因为它在肝脏、脂肪和肌肉中激活腺苷酸活化蛋白激酶。激活大脑中的腺苷酸活化蛋白激酶可以增加食欲,也可以增加体重。当它在非脑组织中被激活时,它促进脂肪燃烧。

Inhibiting AMPK in the brain likewise reduces appetite and may cause weight loss. However, no substance or strategy has sufficient evidence to support claims of activating or inhibiting hypothalamic AMPK. The best strategy for weight loss remains diet and exercise.

抑制大脑中的腺苷酸活化蛋白激酶同样会降低食欲,并可能导致体重减轻。然而,没有任何物质或策略有足够的证据支持激活或抑制下丘脑 AMPK 的主张。最好的减肥策略是节食和锻炼。

Substances that Activate Hypothalamic AMPK 激活下丘脑 AMPK 的物质

1) Ghrelin

Ghrelin is a hunger hormone produced in the stomach and released during fasting. Ghrelin is essential for survival during severe calorie restriction or fasting when it maintains blood glucose levels [4].

饥饿激素释放肽是一种饥饿荷尔蒙,产生于胃部,在禁食期间释放。生长激素释放肽在严重的卡路里限制或禁食期间对维持血糖水平至关重要。

Ghrelin activates AMPK in the hypothalamus and stimulates food intake [4], however, it inhibits AMPK in the fat tissue and liver [4].

Ghrelin 激活了下丘脑中的 AMPK 并刺激食物摄入,但是,它抑制了脂肪组织和肝脏中的 AMPK。

2) Cannabinoids

2)大麻素

Cannabinoids stimulate AMPK activity in the hypothalamus leading to increased appetite [2]. However, it decreases AMPK in fat cells and liver, similar to Ghrelin [53].

大麻素类化合物刺激下丘脑中的 AMPK 活性,导致食欲增加[2]。然而,它降低脂肪细胞和肝脏中的 AMPK,类似于 Ghrelin [53]。

3) Cortisol

3)皮质醇

Cortisol stimulates AMPK activity in the hypothalamus [2].

皮质醇刺激下丘脑的 AMPK 活性[2]。

Substances that Inhibit Hypothalamic AMPK 抑制下丘脑 AMPK 的物质

Hormones

荷尔蒙

Natural Substances

天然物质

  • Lipoic acid 硫辛酸 [19, 13]… it increases AMPK in muscles, fat and liver cells [ ] … 它增加肌肉、脂肪和肝细胞中的 AMPK [54, 55, 56]
  • Quercetin 槲皮素 [20]… it increases AMPK in fat, liver, and muscle [ ] … 它增加脂肪、肝脏和肌肉中的 AMPK57, 58, 59]
  • Nicotine 尼古丁 [60] – Smokers around the world commonly report increased body weight after smoking cessation. Nicotine-induced 世界各地的吸烟者普遍报告说,戒烟后体重增加,这是尼古丁引起的 weight loss 减重 is associated with the inactivation of hypothalamic AMPK [ 与下丘脑 AMPK 失活有关[60].
  • Ketones 酮类 [61]

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