大卫辛克莱补充剂-他需要什么和在哪里购买-NMN,白藜芦醇和二甲双胍

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David Sinclair 大卫 · 辛克莱

David Sinclair Supplements – What He Takes & Where to Buy – NMN, Resveratrol & Metformin

 Published 出版 Mar 31, 2019 2019年3月31日
– Updated – 更新 Aug 10, 2020 2020年8月10日

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David recently garnered attention with his appearances on the Rhonda Patrick and Joe Rogan podcasts. Using his moment in the spotlight to raise awareness for life extension research.

大卫最近通过在朗达 · 帕特里克和乔 · 罗根播客上露面而获得了关注。利用他在聚光灯下的时刻提高人们对生命延伸研究的认识。

Despite being 50 years of age, David looks much younger. Given that his focus is on tackling aging and he appears to exemplify this work – it’s natural to ask – what’s his secret?

尽管已经50岁了,但大卫看起来要年轻得多。鉴于他的重点是对付衰老,而且他似乎是这项工作的例证——很自然地会问——他的秘诀是什么?

One thing David is fast to point out is that he’s a scientist – not a medical doctor, and doesn’t give health recommendations. Respecting that, this post will only look at what David does, noting that he isn’t recommending others do the same. David does not sell or endorse anybrands – so the discussion below on “where to buy” will simply look at options.

大卫很快指出的一件事是,他是一个科学家——不是医生,也不提供健康建议。关于这一点,这篇文章将只关注大卫做了什么,注意到他并没有推荐其他人做同样的事情。戴维既不销售也不代言任何品牌——因此下面关于“在哪里购买”的讨论只是简单地看看选择。

David Sinclair Takes:

大卫 · 辛克莱尔:

  • Resveratrol – 1g/daily – mornings with yogurt (see 白藜芦醇-每天1克-每天早上与酸奶(见where to buy 去哪里买)
  • Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN) – 1g/daily – mornings (see 烟酰胺单核苷酸(NMN)-1克/天-上午(见where to buy 去哪里买)
  • Metformin (prescription drug) – 1g/daily in the evenings – except on days when exercising 二甲双胍(处方药)——晚上每天1克,白天锻炼时除外
  • Multivitamins? Only vitamin D3 with K2, he aims to get the rest from his diet 复合维生素? 只有含 K2的维生素 D3,他的目标是从饮食中获取剩余的维生素 d
  • Statin (prescription drug) – taken since his early 20s due to family history of cardiovascular disease 他汀类药物(处方药)-由于家族心血管疾病史,在20岁出头时服用
  • Aspirin – 83mg daily 阿司匹林-每日83毫克

– Started taking resveratrol around 2004, and added NMN & Metformin approximately 3 years ago
– Resveratrol, NMN & Metformin doses come via David’s recently released book; Lifespan
– Daily vitamin K2, D3 and aspirin all also mentioned in his book Lifespan
– David discussed using a statin in his Jan 2019 Joe Rogan interview (link), but didn’t mention it in his book

– 2004年左右开始服用白藜芦醇,大约3年前添加了 NMN 和二甲双胍-白藜芦醇、 NMN 和二甲双胍的剂量来自 David 最近出版的书; 寿命-每日维生素 K2、 D3和阿司匹林都在他的书寿命-David 在2019年1月 Joe Rogan 的采访中讨论了使用他汀类药物,但没有在他的嘘声中提到

Below, a tweet by David on taking resveratrol in the morning, with a spoon of homemade Bravo yogurt (more on his yogurt here):

下面是大卫在推特上发的一条关于早晨服用白藜芦醇和一勺自制布拉沃酸奶(更多内容见他的酸奶)的帖子:

His studies showed that without fat, resveratrol absorption was 5x lower. So consumption with yogurt (or another fat source) is important. David clarified on the recent podcast with Rhonda Patrick that the NMN doesn’t need to be taken with a fat source – he specifically mentions taking his NMN in capsules, downed with a glass of water in the morning.

他的研究表明,如果没有脂肪,白藜芦醇的吸收要低5倍。因此,与酸奶(或其他脂肪来源)一起食用是很重要的。大卫在最近与朗达 · 帕特里克的播客中澄清说,NMN 不需要和脂肪来源一起服用——他特别提到早上用胶囊服用 NMN,然后用一杯水灌下去。

What do Resveratrol & NMN do in relation to living longer?

白藜芦醇和 NMN 在延长寿命方面有什么作用?

David describes resveratrol and NMN as critical for the activation of sirtuin genes. Sirtuins play a key role in functions that help us to live longer – such as DNA repair.

大卫将白藜芦醇和 NMN 描述为激活去乙酰化酶基因的关键。去乙酰化酶在帮助我们长寿的功能中起着关键的作用,比如 DNA 修复。

He describes resveratrol as the “accelerator pedal” for the sirtuin genes (increasing their activation), and NMN as the fuel. Without “fuel”, resveratrol won’t work. The reason that resveratrol won’t work effectively without NMN, is that sirtuin activation requires youthful NAD levels, but by 50 years old, we have about half the level of NAD we had in our 20s (NAD being a molecule that is essential to energy production in our cells).

他把白藜芦醇描述为去乙酰化酶基因的“加速器踏板”(增加激活) ,以 NMN 作为燃料。没有“燃料” ,白藜芦醇就不起作用。没有 NMN,白藜芦醇不能有效发挥作用的原因是去乙酰化酶的激活需要年轻的 NAD 水平,但是到了50岁,我们的 NAD 水平只有20多岁时的一半(NAD 是细胞产生能量所必需的分子)。

So in effect, you take resveratrol to increase activation of the sirtuin genes, and NMN to ensure the sirtuins have enough energy to work properly.

所以实际上,你服用白藜芦醇是为了增加去乙酰化酶基因的活性,而 NMN 是为了确保去乙酰化酶有足够的能量正常工作。

What else is David doing to stay healthy?

为了保持健康,大卫还做了什么?

  • Intermittent fasting – skipping breakfast and/or lunch where possible. Helped by lots of green tea 间歇性禁食 — 尽可能不吃早餐和/或午餐,多喝绿茶
  • Running 1-2x/week low impact and high intensity (using a curved treadmill such as Woodway) 每周跑1-2次,低强度和高强度(使用弯曲的跑步机,如 Woodway)
  • Weight lifting (ideally!) 1-2x/week 举重(理想状态)1-2次/周
  • Sauna weekly 每周蒸桑拿
  • Coffee in the morning (once per day), then green tea after that 早上喝咖啡(每天一次) ,然后喝绿茶

Below we’ll dig deeper into the 3 longevity supplements David takes; NMN, Resveratrol & Metformin.

下面我们将深入研究大卫服用的三种长寿补充剂: NMN、白藜芦醇和二甲双胍。

Contents [hide]

目录[隐藏]

Resveratrol 白藜芦醇

Resveratrol is a molecule that’s found (in small amounts) in the skin of foods like grapes, blueberries, raspberries, mulberries, and peanuts. If you remember the “hype” some time ago around red wine being healthy, part of that came because it contains tiny amounts of resveratrol. Unfortunately all foods sources contain tiny amounts, so we need to take it in a concentrated supplement form for it to be useful.

白藜芦醇是一种分子,在葡萄、蓝莓、覆盆子、桑椹和花生等食物的表皮中发现(少量)。如果你还记得一段时间以前有关红酒有益健康的“炒作” ,其中部分原因是因为红酒中含有微量的白藜芦醇。不幸的是,所有的食物来源都含有微量的维生素 c,所以我们需要把它浓缩成一种补充剂才能发挥作用。

There’s actually a fair amount of controversy around the potential benefits of resveratrol. For example this 2019 literature review is quite critical of the health claims:

实际上,关于白藜芦醇的潜在益处还有相当多的争议。例如,这篇2019年的文献综述对健康声明提出了相当严厉的批评:

Whereas this paper (admittedly co-authored by David Sinclair), points to benefits:

然而,这篇论文(公认由大卫•辛克莱(David Sinclair)合著)指出了一些好处:

In that paper they hypothesize that resveratrol acts a “caloric restriction memetic”, which activates beneficial cellular pathways.

在那篇论文中,他们假设白藜芦醇起到“卡路里限制模因”的作用,激活有益的细胞通路。

Given that there are scientists much smarter than me on both sides of the fence, I find it hard to draw a conclusion. But certainly it’s interesting that a scientist like David has taken it since 2003 – and continues to do so to this day.

考虑到两边都有比我聪明得多的科学家,我发现很难得出结论。但是,像大卫这样的科学家从2003年起就开始服用这种药物,并且一直持续到今天,这当然很有趣。

Left pic = 2009 (source), right pic = 2019 (source)

左 pic = 2009(源) ,右 pic = 2019(源)

Resveratrol – Where to buy? 白藜芦醇-在哪里购买?

Whilst David’s resveratrol comes from excess product leftover from lab experiments, not all of us have this luxury! Therefore we are forced to look online. If you pop resveratrol into an Amazon search, you’ll find a host of different options, many of (potentially) dubious quality.

虽然大卫的白藜芦醇来自实验室的剩余产品,但不是我们所有人都有这种奢侈品!因此,我们不得不在网上寻找。如果你在亚马逊上搜索白藜芦醇,你会发现许多不同的选择,其中许多(潜在的)质量令人怀疑。

The first thing to note is that we should be looking for trans-resveratrol, not cis-resveratrol.

首先要注意的是,我们应该寻找白藜芦醇,而不是顺式白藜芦醇。

From David’s studies, cis-Resveratrol did not activate the sirtuin enzyme, but trans-Resveratrol did.

根据 David 的研究,顺式白藜芦醇不能激活 sirtuin 酶,但是白藜芦醇可以。

Next, the purity of the trans-resveratrol is important, we’re looking for 98%+. David mentions this at 1:17:54 of his Ben Greenfield interview, noting that 50% purity can even give diarrhea, because there’s other stuff that comes along with the molecule. He also confirms that Polygonum cuspidatum (Japanese Knotweed) is a good source for the resveratrol.

其次,白藜芦醇的纯度很重要—- 我们希望达到98% 以上。大卫在1:17:54的本 · 格林菲尔德采访中提到了这一点,他指出50% 的纯度甚至可以导致腹泻,因为这种分子还伴随着其他东西。他还证实虎杖(虎杖)是白藜芦醇的良好来源。

To get closer to the quality that David is likely taking, we can look at research published by an old company of his; Sirtris (who were sold to GSK for $720 million). In this paper they were doing clinical tests on a formulation of resveratrol they call SRT501. Noting that:

为了更接近大卫可能采取的质量,我们可以看看他的一个老公司出版的研究,Sirtris (谁被出售给葛兰素史克7.2亿美元)。在这篇论文中,他们正在对一种称为 SRT501的白藜芦醇配方进行临床试验。注意到:

Due to the poor aqueous solubility exhibited by resveratrol, digestive absorption is greatly influenced by drug dissolution rate. In an effort to increase absorption across the gastro-intestinal tract and thus systemically available parent compound, there has been considerable interest in the pharmaceutical manipulation of resveratrol. Decreasing the particle size of such chemicals can improve their rate of dissolution and thus their absorption. Therefore, the aim of this clinical study was to investigate whether consumption of SRT501, a micronized resveratrol formulation designed by Sirtris, a GSK Company is safe and generates measurable and pharmacologically active levels of parent agent in the circulation and in the liver.

由于白藜芦醇在水中溶解性较差,药物溶出速率对消化吸收有较大影响。为了增加整个胃肠道的吸收,从而系统地提供母体化合物,白藜芦醇的药物操作已经引起了相当大的兴趣。减小这类化学品的粒度可以提高其溶解速度,从而提高其吸收率。因此,这项临床研究的目的是调查消费 SRT501,一个微型白藜芦醇配方设计的 Sirtris,GSK 公司是安全的,并产生可测量和药理活性水平的母剂在循环和肝脏。

That’s a wordy quote from the paper, but in essence, they were testing a micronized resveratrol formulation against a non-micronized version. Their study found that levels of resveratrol in the blood were 3.6x greater when using the micronized formulation, and other markers they were comparing also improved.

这是从论文中引用的一句冗长的话,但本质上,他们是在测试一种微细化的白藜芦醇制剂对一种非微细化的制剂。他们的研究发现,当使用微粉化制剂时,血液中白藜芦醇的含量增加了3.6倍,他们比较的其他指标也有所改善。

We see this with other molecules too; where reducing particle size increases bioavailability. For example with curcumin, whose absorption can be improved through micronization (for example Theracurmin). So this makes sense.

我们在其他分子中也看到了这一点,减小粒径可以提高生物利用度。例如姜黄素,它的吸收可以通过微粉化来改善(例如兽药)。所以这是有道理的。

Searching Amazon for “micronized resveratrol” suddenly shrinks the options to just a few, including MegaResveratrol. However, I noticed something on the page for the Rich Roll interview with David Sinclair. He lists a micronized resveratrol by RevGenetics. This was interesting because during the interview Rich asks David where to get the supplements he takes, and David told him they’d talk about it after the podcast. Maybe RevGenetics was a brand that David mentioned post interview (possible), or perhaps it was just a brand Rich “plucked” from a Google search. Impossible to know without further info.

在亚马逊上搜索“微粒化白藜芦醇” ,突然间选项减少到只有几个,包括巨型白藜芦醇。然而,我注意到在采访大卫 · 辛克莱尔的 Rich Roll 页面上有些东西。他列出了 RevGenetics 公司的一种微量白藜芦醇。这很有趣,因为在采访中 Rich 问 David 在哪里可以得到他所服用的补充剂,David 告诉他他们会在播客之后讨论这个问题。也许 RevGenetics 是 David 在面试后提到的一个品牌(也有可能) ,也许它只是从谷歌搜索中“摘录”出来的一个品牌。没有进一步的信息是不可能知道的。

That said, I looked into RevGenetics a little more, and they certainly seem legitimate, with a high rating on ShopperApproved. They focus on longevity molecules and have been selling resveratrol since 2006. They offer a micronized 98% trans-resveratrol that comes in powder form, and thus could be taken in the morning with yogurt, as David does. It’s named M98 Super Micronized Resveratrol.

也就是说,我稍微多看了一下 RevGenetics,它们看起来当然是合法的,在 ShopperApproved 上有很高的评价。他们专注于长寿分子,并从2006年开始销售白藜芦醇。他们提供一种粉末状的98% 白藜芦醇,因此可以像 David 那样在早上和酸奶一起服用。它被命名为 M98超微白藜芦醇。

If like me, you’re curious about the daily cost… at 1g/day it works out at $3/day ($75 per 25g tub). If you buy 2 or 3 tubs you get a discount, and it comes down to $67.50 per tub, so $2.70/day.

如果你像我一样,对每天的成本感到好奇… … 每天1克,每天3美元(每25克浴缸75美元)。如果你买了两三桶,你可以享受折扣,每桶67.5美元,也就是每天2.7美元。

Note: Whichever source of trans-resveratrol you take, ensure to mix it with a fat source (such as yogurt or olive oil) in order to maximize bioavailability.

注意: 无论你服用哪种来源的白藜芦醇,都要确保与脂肪来源(如酸奶或橄榄油)混合,以便最大限度地提高生物利用度。

Resveratrol – Storage 白藜芦醇的贮藏

David mentions in his interview with Rhonda Patrick a few nuances around the storage of resveratrol:

大卫在与朗达 · 帕特里克的访谈中提到了白藜芦醇储存方面的一些细微差别:

  • Resveratrol is light sensitive, and when left exposed to light it turns brown. They found that brown resveratrol no longer works correctly. 白藜芦醇对光敏感,当暴露在光下时,它会变成棕色。他们发现,棕色的白藜芦醇不再起作用了
  • Ideally resveratrol should be kept in the cold and dark – for example, in a sealed container in the fridge. 理想的情况下,白藜芦醇应该保存在寒冷和黑暗的环境中,例如,在冰箱中的密封容器中

Homemade Yogurt 自制酸奶

As mentioned above, David takes his resveratrol in the morning, mixed into a spoon of homemade yogurt (using the Bravo starter culture), in order to increase its bioavailability. Of course you don’t need to make your own yogurt, a store bought version will work adequately. However, if you’re interested to make your own version – expand the box below to read more.

如上所述,大卫在早晨服用他的白藜芦醇,混合到一勺自制酸奶(使用 Bravo 发酵剂文化) ,以提高其生物利用度。当然你不需要自己制作酸奶,商店里买的酸奶就足够了。不过,如果你有兴趣制作自己的版本,请展开下面的方框阅读更多内容。David Sinclair Homemade Yogurt – Click to Expand 大卫辛克莱自制酸奶-点击扩大

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NMN – Nicotinamide Mononucleotide 烟酰胺单核苷酸

NMN falls into a category of supplements, along with Nicotinamide Riboside (NR), referred to as “NAD boosters” – which have become increasingly popular.

NMN 属于一类补充剂,与烟酰胺核糖苷(NR) ,被称为“ NAD 助推器”-这已成为越来越受欢迎。

NAD is required for every cell of our body to help facilitate energy production. As we age, the amount of NAD our cells produce declines, and less NAD = reduced cellular function. According to David, at 50, you have about half as much NAD as at age 20.

我们身体的每一个细胞都需要 NAD 来帮助促进能量的产生。随着年龄的增长,我们的细胞产生的 NAD 数量减少,NAD = 细胞功能减弱。根据大卫的说法,在50岁时,你的 NAD 是20岁时的一半。

The hope is that by supplementing precursors we can boost the cellular level of NAD closer to youthful levels.

希望通过补充前体,我们可以提高 NAD 的细胞水平,接近年轻的水平。

There’s little to no doubt in the research community that we need to restore NAD function; but the jury is still out on what the best method will be. Currently David has his eggs in the basket of NMN.

毫无疑问,在研究团体中,我们需要恢复 NAD 功能; 但是最好的方法是什么仍然没有定论。目前大卫把所有的鸡蛋都放在了 NMN 的篮子里。

NMN – Where to buy? 在哪里购买?

David’s NMN powder comes from excess product left over from lab experiments. This is good to know, but doesn’t help us when it comes to sourcing some. Below we will look at various possible buying options.

大卫的 NMN 粉末来自实验室实验剩余的过剩产品。这是一个好消息,但是在采购方面对我们毫无帮助。下面我们将看看各种可能的购买选择。

Potential considerations when buying include:

购买时可能考虑的因素包括:

  • Accuracy – is the product you’re getting actually NMN? 准确性-是你得到的产品实际上 NMN?
  • Purity – assuming it is NMN, how pure is it? 98%… 99%…? 纯度-假设是 NMN,它的纯度是多少? 98% … 99% … ?
  • Contaminants – does it contain any contaminants such as heavy metals? 污染物-是否含有重金属等污染物?
  • Fillers – are any fillers used? 填充物——有使用填充物吗?

Assuming all the above are ok, the last crucial question is:

假设以上这些都是正确的,那么最后一个关键问题是:

  • Price – how much does it cost per gram? 价格——每克多少钱?

What I’ve done below is put some of the more highly reviewed options (within USA) into a table, calculated the approximate price per gram, and added links to any 3rd party analysis certificates the companies display.

我在下面所做的是把一些更高度评价的选项(在美国)放到一个表中,计算每克的大约价格,并添加到公司显示的任何第三方分析证书的链接。

Product 产品Approx. price per gram 大约每克价格3rd Party Analysis Certificate? 第三方分析证书? ?
Powder 粉末
Double Wood (30g powder)双木(30克粉末)$3.83/gram ($115 / 30g) – using $15 off 每克 $3.83($115/30克)-减价 $15coupon code 优惠码Yes 是的(link) (链接) – via – 经由Colmaric Analyticals Colmaric analysis
PureGen (15g powder)PureGen (15克粉末)$4.60/gram ($69 / 15g) 每克4.6元(每15克69元)Possibly / Questionable ( 可能/可疑(link 链接) – via unspecified lab )-通过未指定的实验室
RevGenetics Advanced NMN (25g powder) RevGenetics 高级 NMN (25克粉末)$15.8/gram ($395 / 25g) 每克15.8元(每克395元)Yes ( 是(link 链接) – via )-经Intertek
Capsules 胶囊
Double Wood (125mg capsules) 双木(125毫克胶囊)$5.86/gram ($44 / 7.5g) – using $5 off 每克 $5.86($44/7.5克)-减去 $5coupon code 优惠码Yes 是的(link) (链接) – via – 经由Colmaric Analyticals Colmaric analysis
Maac10 (250mg capsules)Maac10(250毫克胶囊)$5.33/gram ($40 / 7.5g) 每克5.33元(每克40元)Possibly / Questionable ( 可能/可疑(link 链接) – via unspecified lab )-通过未指定的实验室
Infinite Age (250mg capsules) 无限年龄(250毫克胶囊)$6 ($45 / 7.5g) $6($45/7.5 g)Yes 是的(link) (链接) – via – 经由Colmaric Analyticals Colmaric analysis

The above table provides a start, but for a detailed analysis table see this post, which also includes options for UK buyers.

上面的表格提供了一个开始,但是详细的分析表见这篇文章,其中也包括英国买家的选择。

– Price per gram
The average price per gram appears around $4-$6. For products noticably cheaper, it would be worth exercising some caution around their authenticity.

– 每克价格每克的平均价格约为4-6美元对于明显便宜的产品,应该对其真实性保持谨慎

– Capsulating the Powders
With the bulk powder versions of NMN above, you could put them into capsules yourself at home, using a capsule filling machine. Emulating the method David uses to take his NMN; in capsules swallowed with a glass of water. Using size 00 capsules, it takes 3 capsules to capsulate 1g of NMN. Depending on how tightly you fill them you may be a marginally over or under 1g, but it won’t be by much. With enough powder, most machines can fill 100 capsules per time – which would be 33 days (~1 month) supply.

粉末的封装用上述的粉末版本的 NMN,你可以把他们放到胶囊自己在家里,使用胶囊灌装机模仿大卫用来服用 NMN 的方法; 用一杯水吞服胶囊采用00粒胶囊,3粒胶囊包裹1克 NMN取决于你填得有多紧,你可能稍微超过或低于1克,但不会超过很多有了足够的粉末,大多数机器每次可以装100粒胶囊,这将是33天(~ 1个月)的供应

– Testing
There are two main types of tests companies will do. The first is third party testing on the purity of their NMN. The second is contaminant testing, for things such as heavy metals. It’s a positive indicator if they can provide both.

– 测试公司会做两种主要的测试第一个是第三方测试他们的 NMN 的纯度第二个是污染物检测,比如重金属如果他们两者都能提供,这是一个积极的指标

NMN Price & Bioavailability 美国 NMN 价格和生物利用度

One thing that’s worth acknowledging is that NMN is currently a very expensive supplement, especially if you wanted to emulate David Sinclair’s dosage of 1g/day.

一件值得承认的事情是,NMN 目前是一个非常昂贵的补充剂,特别是如果你想仿效大卫辛克莱的剂量每天1克。

There are a few possible workarounds:

有一些可能的变通方法:Possible Price Workarounds – Click to Expand 可能的价格解决方案-点击扩展

What does David think of Nicotinamide Riboside (NR)? 大卫如何看待尼克酰胺核糖苷(NR) ?

Nicotinamide Riboside is a precursor to NAD, similar to NMN. David states in his book that his lab finds:

烟酰胺核糖苷是 NAD 的前体,类似于 NMN。大卫在他的书中说,他的实验室发现:

  • NMN a more stable molecule than NR NMN 是比 NR 更稳定的分子
  • NMN is able to do some things in mice studies that NR can’t NMN 能够在小鼠研究中做一些 NR 不能做的事情

That being said, he isn’t against NR, he’s just more optimistic on NMN being the better molecule for raising NAD in the long run. He notes in a blog post on NMN & NR that:

也就是说,他并不是反对 NR,他只是更乐观地认为 NMN 是从长远来看提高 NAD 的更好分子。他在 NMN & NR 的一篇博文中写道:

  • The science is further along for NR, but it’s too early to say which is better for humans. 科学在 NR 方面已经有了进一步的发展,但现在说哪种方法对人类更好还为时过早

NR – Where to buy? 在哪里购买?

The brand leader in sales of Nicotinamide Riboside is Chromadex’s Niagen (pictured above). Amongst Chromadex’s scientific advisors is Charles Brenner, who first discovered NR, and showed it could extend the life of yeast cells.

在 Nicotinamide Riboside 销售的品牌领导者是 Chromadex 的 Niagen (如上图所示)。Chromadex 公司的科学顾问之一是查尔斯 · 布伦纳,他是第一个发现 NR 的人,他表示 NR 可以延长酵母细胞的寿命。

Niagen’s recommended serving size is 300mg (1 capsule) – which may be less efficient at raising NAD levels than 1g of NMN.

Niagen 的推荐服用量是300毫克(1胶囊)-这可能是低效率提高 NAD 水平比1克 NMN。

If we compare NR & NMN at a price per gram, they’re more similar than I expected. Niagen works out approximately $5.22/gram, and NMN is around $5-$6/gram depending on brand.

如果我们比较 NR 和 NMN 在每克的价格,他们比我预期的更相似。Niagen 每克大约5.22美元,NMN 每克大约5-6美元,具体取决于品牌。

NR & NMN Storage 天然橡胶及核锰贮存

In David’s recent interview with Rhonda Patrick, he discussed details around storage, saying:

在大卫最近对朗达 · 帕特里克的采访中,他谈到了有关存储的细节,他说:

  • NR and NMN need to be kept cold (fridge or freezer) because they don’t have a long shelf life. NR 和 NMN 需要冷藏(冰箱或冷冻) ,因为它们没有很长的保质期
  • If they are kept on a shelf, and are 如果它们被放在一个架子上,并且not in a stabilized form 不是稳定的形式, they can degrade into nicotinamide. This is sub-optimal because Nicotinamide can have the opposite of the desired effect, and actually inhibit the sirtuins 它们能降解成烟酰胺。这是次优的,因为烟酰胺可以产生预期效果的相反作用,并且实际上抑制去乙酰化酶1. He didn’t elaborate further on what a “stabilized form” means in this context, which would be interesting to know. 。他没有进一步阐述”稳定形式”在这方面的含义,这一点很有意思
  • If NMN gets wet, or gets a bit of humidity in the bottle, its only a short time before it’s degrading. This may be the case with NR too (because it applies to many supplements), but when David explained this he was explicitly talking about NMN. 如果 NMN 被弄湿了,或者在瓶子里有一点湿度,那么在它降解之前只有很短的时间。这也可能是 NR 的情况(因为它适用于许多补充剂) ,但当大卫解释这一点时,他明确地谈论 NMN

Since David explained this I’ve come to learn that Nicotinamide Riboside, when it its chloride form; Nicotinamide Riboside Chloride (as sold by Niagen), is in a stabilized form. This means that it doesn’t need to be kept cold to have an adequate shelf life. More on that below…

自从大卫解释了这一点,我了解到烟酰胺核糖苷,当它的氯化物形式,烟酰胺核糖苷氯化物(由 Niagen 出售) ,是一个稳定的形式。这意味着它不需要冷藏就能有足够的保质期。更多内容请见下文… ..。Further Details on Stabilized NR – Click to Expand 稳定天然橡胶的进一步细节-点击扩展

NMN/NR & Methyl Group Depletion? NMN/NR & amp?

There has been some concern in the field that consuming NR or NMN could decrease the body’s methyl groups and lead to health problems. This section will discuss that issue…

食用 NR 或 NMN 可能会降低机体的甲基含量,从而导致健康问题,已经引起了人们的广泛关注。这部分将讨论这个问题… ..。Methyl Group Depletion – Click to Expand 甲基基团耗尽-点击扩展

Metformin 二甲双胍

Metformin is actually a relatively old drug, first discussed in medical literature in 1922, and studied in humans in the 1950s. It is derived from a plant called the French Lilac. It’s primary use in medicine is for the treatment of diabetes, thanks to its ability to decrease blood glucose levels in patients.

二甲双胍实际上是一种相对古老的药物,1922年首次在医学文献中讨论,并于20世纪50年代在人体中进行研究。它来源于一种叫做法国丁香的植物。它在医学上的主要用途是治疗糖尿病,因为它能够降低患者的血糖水平。

Because Metformin has been used for years, and has an established track record of safety, this makes it more attractive as a longevity drug. Molecules that are discovered today will need years of testing before they can even come close to rival the amount of data and “patient years” accumulated by metformin.

由于二甲双胍已经使用多年,并且已经建立了安全记录,这使得它作为一种长寿药物更具吸引力。今天发现的分子需要多年的测试,才能接近二甲双胍积累的数据量和“耐心年”。

It’s thought the longevity benefits are at least in part derived from activation of the AMPK cellular pathway. This has a host of knock-on effects (visualized below), some of which are involved in beneficial processes like mediating inflammation and increasing autophagy (cellular cleanup).

人们认为长寿的益处至少部分来自于 AMPK 细胞通路的激活。这有一系列的连锁反应(如下图所示) ,其中一些与介导炎症和增加自噬(细胞清除)等有益的过程有关。

AMPK pathway activation (image via this paper)

AMPK 通路激活(图片来源: 本文)

Metformin – Where to buy? 二甲双胍-在哪里购买?

Metformin is a prescription drug, and thus needs to be acquired through a doctor’s prescription, at least in most countries. It isn’t (yet) considered a drug that can help improve healthspan or lifespan, and so you may need to find a forward thinking doctor if you want it prescribed for general health. Typically doctors only prescribe Metformin for blood sugar control issues (type 2 diabetes).

二甲双胍是一种处方药,因此至少在大多数国家,需要通过医生的处方才能获得。它(目前)还没有被认为是一种能够帮助改善健康和寿命的药物,因此如果你想要一般健康的处方,你可能需要找一个有远见的医生。通常情况下,医生只开二甲双胍治疗血糖控制问题(2型糖尿病)。

Metformin – How often to take? 二甲双胍-多久服一次?

Typically Metformin is taken daily – both by diabetics, and by people using it for healthspan extension. However, on the latest interview with Joe Rogan, they discussed a 2018 paperwhich showed metformin inhibits mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise training. David explained that this makes sense, and it’s exactly metformin’s inhibition of mitochondrial function that leads to some of the health benefits. Specifically, they cause the cell to think it’s in a nutrient restricted state, and it turns on pathways typically reserved for times of scarcity. The function of these pathways is hypothesized to lead to better healthspan outcomes.

典型的二甲双胍是每天服用的,既有糖尿病患者,也有用于健康延长的人。然而,在最近对 Joe Rogan 的采访中,他们讨论了2018年的一篇论文,该论文显示二甲双胍抑制线粒体适应有氧训练训练。大卫解释说,这是有道理的,正是二甲双胍抑制线粒体功能,导致了一些健康的好处。具体来说,它们使细胞认为自己处于营养限制状态,并开启了通常为稀缺时期保留的通路。这些路径的作用被假设为能够带来更好的健康跨度的结果。

With this in mind, David opts to take metformin at night, so that come the morning, the mitochondrial inhibition is lessened. He also opts not to take it on days when he has been exercising. For similar reasons he also skips resveratrol on exercise days (source: see last paragraph of section 1 – “Get Moving” on David’s blog post)

考虑到这一点,大卫选择在晚上服用二甲双胍,这样第二天早上,线粒体的抑制作用就减弱了。他还选择在锻炼的日子里不服用。出于类似的原因,他在运动日也不吃白藜芦醇(来源: 参见 David 博客文章第1节“动起来”的最后一段)

How to (big picture) think about the molecules David takes?
如何看待大卫摄取的分子?

We can attempt to summarise the function of the molecules David takes using 2 categories; 1) molecules that emulate fasting 2) molecules that boost existing function.

我们可以尝试用两类分子来总结大卫服用的分子的功能: 1)模拟空腹分子,以提高现有功能。

1) Molecules that emulate fasting

1)模仿禁食的分子

Both resveratrol and metformin can be described as molecules that trigger cells to exhibit characteristics similar to when fasting. Metformin activates AMP-Kinase, Resveratrol activates SIRT1 and AMP-Kinase.

白藜芦醇和二甲双胍都可以被描述为能够触发细胞表现出与禁食时相似的特征的分子。二甲双胍激活腺苷酸激酶,白藜芦醇激活 SIRT1和腺苷酸激酶。

Why is this beneficial?

为什么这是有益的?

Cells have evolved to operate in 2 main states; fed and unfed. In times of plenty, they will grow and multiply, and in times of scarcity, they will hunker down and focus on maintenance. Part of maintenance includes things like:

细胞已经进化到两种主要状态: 进食和不进食。在富足的时候,它们会成长和繁殖,在匮乏的时候,它们会蹲下来,专注于维护。维护的一部分包括以下内容:

  • DNA repair DNA 修复
  • Removing and re-using non-functioning or superfluous cellular contents (autophagy) 去除并重复使用无功能或多余的细胞内容物(自噬)
  • Removing toxins 排除毒素

These are all important tasks, and it’s possible that when we exist in a constantly fed state, they don’t get performed as often as may be optimal.

这些都是重要的任务,当我们处于一种持续不断的饮食状态时,它们可能不会像最佳状态那样经常得到执行。

Thus when David takes resveratrol and metformin, and undertakes intermittent fasting, he’s allowing for these fasting dependent processes to take place.

因此,当大卫服用白藜芦醇和二甲双胍,并进行间歇性禁食,他允许这些禁食依赖的过程发生。

There may be other things going on too – but this is a big chunk of what’s happening.

也许还有其他的事情在发生——但这只是正在发生的事情的一大部分。

2) Molecules that boost existing function

2)增强现有功能的分子

Whilst metformin and resveratrol are primarily aimed at preserving existing function, we have NMN which is taken to boost our NAD back to youthful levels.

虽然二甲双胍和白藜芦醇的主要目的是保存现有的功能,我们有 NMN,这是采取提高我们的 NAD 回到年轻的水平。

Fasting can actually boost NAD levels too, but the intention is that using NAD precursors like NMN raises NAD higher and for longer than can be achieved otherwise.

禁食实际上也能提高 NAD 水平,但其目的是使用像 NMN 这样的 NAD 前体可以提高 NAD 水平,并且持续时间比其他方法更长。

To Conclude… 总而言之..

  • David is a longevity researcher who is certainly aging gracefully 大卫是一位长寿研究者,他的确正在优雅地衰老

Left pic = 2009 (source), right pic = 2019 (source)

左 pic = 2009(源) ,右 pic = 2019(源)

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