Coenzyme Q10 Plays Many Roles As Anti-Aging Nutrient
沃德 · 迪安医学博士
Coenzyme Q10, also known as CoQ10, is a normal and essential component of the membranes of mitochondrial the intracellular organelles that manufacture ATP, the basic energy molecule of the cell. CoQ10 plays a critical role in the production of energy in nearly every cell of the body, and is found in most living systems.
辅酶 Q10，也被称为辅酶 Q10，是线粒体细胞膜的一个正常和必要的组成部分，细胞内细胞器产生 ATP，细胞的基本能量分子。辅酶 q10在身体几乎每个细胞的能量生产中起着关键作用，在大多数生命系统中都可以找到。
For this reason, it was named ubiquinone (for ubiquitous quinone) by its discoverer, R.A. Morton. CoQ10 has been shown to improve many conditions associated with aging, and to extend the lifespan of several organisms.
由于这个原因，它的发现者 r.a. 莫顿将其命名为泛醌(无处不在的醌)。辅酶 q10已被证明可以改善许多与衰老有关的条件，并延长一些生物体的寿命。
Mechanisms of Action
CoQ10 is a vitamin-like fat-soluble nutrient (quinone) and functions as an important component of the mitochondrial energy electron transduction chain (oxidative phosphorylation) and in the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
辅酶 q10是一种类似维生素的脂溶性营养物质(醌) ，作为线粒体能量电子转导链(氧化磷酸化)的重要组成部分，在三磷酸腺苷(ATP)的生产中发挥着重要作用。
CoQ10 is a powerful antioxidant, capable of inhibiting lipid peroxidation in mitochondrial membranes (its chemical structure is similar to that of Vitamin E). It has cardioprotective, cytoprotective, and neuroprotective properties, is a calcium channel blocker and membrane stabilizer, modulates prostaglandins, inhibits intracellular phospholipases and preserves myocardial NaK-ATPase.1
辅酶 q10是一种强大的抗氧化剂，能够抑制线粒体膜上的脂质过氧化(其化学结构类似于维生素 e)。它具有心脏保护、细胞保护和神经保护的特性，是一种钙通道阻滞剂和膜稳定剂，调节前列腺素，抑制细胞内磷脂酶和保存心肌 nak-atpase. 1
Clinical Uses of CoQ10
Congestive Heart Failure
A number of studies have confirmed CoQ10s effectiveness in improving cardiac function in cases of cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure. In one six-year study of 122 patients with New York Heart Association classes II, III and IV chronic dilated cardiomyopathy, subjects were treated with 100 mg CoQ10 each day. At the beginning of the study, the mean ejection fraction a measure of ventricular blood flow was 41 percent. Ejection fraction increased to 59 percent after only six months on CoQ10. Eighty-seven percent of the participants experienced significant improvement in their ejection fraction during this time, and improved by one or two New York Heart Association classes. Those in class II achieved the greatest benefit. All of these subjects became asymptomatic after CoQ10 administration. Despite these positive results, the authors suggested that the 100 mg dose of CoQ10 was too low, and the subjects might have done even better on higher doses.2
充血性心力衰竭研究证实，辅酶 q10在改善心肌病和心衰竭心肌病患者的心功能方面有效。在一项为期六年的研究中，对122名纽约心脏协会 II 级、 III 级和 IV 级慢性扩张型心肌病的患者，受试者每天服用100毫克辅酶 q10。在研究开始时，测量心室血流量的平均射出分率是41% 。射出分率在 CoQ10上仅仅6个月就上涨到59% 。在这段时间里，87% 的参与者的射出分率得到了显著的改善，并且通过一两次纽约心脏协会的课程得到了改善。第二类的人获得了最大的好处。所有受试者经辅酶 q10治疗后均无症状。尽管有这些积极的结果，作者认为100毫克剂量的辅酶 q10太低了，受试者在更高剂量下可能表现得更好
Angina pectoris is chest pain caused by decreased blood flow (and decreased oxygenation) of the heart. In an early Japanese study, 12 patients (average age 56 years) with stable angina were given 150 mg of CoQ10 per day for four weeks. CoQ10 reduced anginal frequency and nitroglycerin use and increased exercise time and time to ST-segment depression.3 (ST-segment is an abnormality on an electrocardiogram indicating the heart is not getting enough oxygen, presenting an increased risk of heart attack.) These results were confirmed in more recent studies, using doses ranging from 30 to 600 mg per day.4
心绞痛胸痛是由于心脏的血流量减少(和氧合减少)引起的胸痛。在日本的一项早期研究中，12名稳定型心绞痛患者(平均年龄56岁)每天服用150毫克辅酶 q10，连续4周。辅酶 q10降低心绞痛的频率和硝酸甘油的使用，增加运动时间和 st 段压低的时间。3(st 段是心电图上的异常，表明心脏缺氧，提出了心脏病发作的风险增加。)这些结果在最近的研究中得到了证实，使用的剂量从每天30至600毫克不等
CoQ10 is also helpful in hypertension. In mild or borderline cases, it may be all that is needed. For example, in one study conducted at the Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Boise, Idaho, physicians administered 120 mg of CoQ10 to 46 male and 37 female hypertensive patients (mean age was nearly 70 in both cases). Systolic blood pressure was reduced by an average of 17.8 mmHg.5 Australian researchers obtained similar blood-pressure-lowering results with a dose of 200 mg CoQ10 in 74 hypertensive diabetics.6
高血压辅酶 q10也有助于高血压。在轻度或临界的情况下，这可能是所有需要的。例如，在爱达荷州博伊西退伍军人事务部医疗中心进行的一项研究中，医生给46名男性和37名女性高血压患者注射了120毫克辅酶 q10(两者的平均年龄都接近70岁)。澳大利亚研究人员在74位高血压糖尿病患者中用200毫克辅酶 q10获得了类似的降压效果
Protection Against Statin Toxicity
Statins, or 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Co A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, are effective drugs for lowering cholesterol. However, published data confirm that statins can cause myopathies (muscle disease), rhabdomyolysis (muscle damage), and renal failure. In May 2000, the FDA warned about liver failure with regard to statin drugs. Statins have been associated with an increased incidence of cataracts, cancer, peripheral neuropathies and some psychiatric disturbances.
他汀类毒素抑制剂或3- 羟基 -3- 甲基戊二酰辅酶 a (HMG-CoA)还原酶抑制剂是降低胆固醇的有效药物。然而，已发表的数据证实他汀类药物可引起肌病(肌肉疾病)、横纹肌溶解症(肌肉损伤)和肾衰竭。2000年5月，FDA 就他汀类药物发出了肝衰竭的警告。他汀类药物与白内障、癌症、周围神经病变和某些精神障碍的发病率增加有关。
Statins lower CoQ10 levels in the heart, skeletal and liver tissues. In mice, statins lower ATP levels, and impair energy metabolism. Although package inserts and marketing material do not mention the statins-CoQ10 link, two U.S. patents filed in January and February of 1989 and granted in 1990 describe a method for counteracting statin-associated myopathy and potential liver damage by concurrent administration of the statins with CoQ10. Both of these patents were assigned to Merck & Co.
他汀类降低心脏、骨骼和肝脏组织的辅酶 q10水平。在小鼠体内，他汀类药物降低 ATP 水平，损害能量代谢。虽然包装说明书和销售材料没有提到他汀类药物与辅酶 q10的联系，但是1989年1月和2月申请的两项美国专利和1990年批准的两项专利描述了一种通过同时使用他汀类药物与辅酶 q10来抵消他汀类药物相关的肌病和潜在肝损害的方法。这两项专利都分配给了默克公司。
However, for more than 14 years, the producers of statins have not acted upon this information and failed to reveal the statin-CoQ10 relation to millions of statin users and to the medical community.
The concern by physicians and scientists regarding the depletion of CoQ10 by the statins is growing from a level of concern to one of alarm. With ever higher statin potencies and dosages, and with a steadily shrinking target LDL cholesterol, the prevalence and severity of CoQ10 deficiency is increasing noticeably.
医生和科学家对他汀类药物耗尽辅酶 q10的担忧正从担忧升级为警告。伴随着更高的他汀类药物的效力和剂量，以及目标低密度脂蛋白胆固醇的稳定收缩，辅酶 q10缺乏的发生率和严重程度明显增加。
An estimated 36 million Americans are now using statin drug therapy. Statin-induced CoQ10 depletion is well documented in animal and human studies with detrimental cardiac consequences in both animal models and human trials. This drug-induced nutrient deficiency is dose-related and more notable in settings of pre-existing CoQ10 deficiency such as in the elderly and in heart failure.
估计有3600万美国人正在使用他汀类药物治疗。他汀类药物引起的辅酶 q10缺失在动物和人类研究中有很好的记录，在动物模型和人体试验中都有有害的心脏后果。这种药物引起的营养缺乏与剂量有关，在先前存在缺乏辅酶 q10的情况下(如老年人和心力衰竭)更为显著。
We are currently in the midst of a congestive heart failure epidemic in the United States, and this epidemic may be due, in large part, to the excessive use of statin drugs and inadequate use of CoQ10.7
Neurologic and Neurodegenerative Disorders
CoQ10 has the potential to be a beneficial agent in any neurodegenerative disease which is characterized by impaired mitochondrial function and/or excessive oxidative damage. CoQ10 has been found to be protective against neuronal toxins in animal models of Parkinsons disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntingtons disease.8
神经系统和神经退行性疾病 scoq10有可能成为任何神经退行性疾病的有益因素，这种拥有属性损害了线粒体功能和/或过度氧化损伤。在帕金森病、肌萎缩性嵴髓侧索硬化症和亨廷顿病的动物模型中，已经发现辅酶 q10对神经毒素有保护作用
Recent clinical trials in these disorders demonstrate that supplemental CoQ10 can slow functional decline particularly of Parkinsons disease.9 Parkinsons is a degenerative neurological disorder for which no treatment has been shown to slow its progression. Nevertheless, in a large, multicenter study, 80 subjects with early Parkinsons were administered CoQ10 at dosages of 300, 600 or 1,200 mg per day. They were followed for 16 months. Those who received CoQ10 experienced less disability than those who received the placebo, and the benefit was greatest in those who received the highest dosage.10
最近对这些疾病的临床试验表明，补充辅酶 q10可以减缓特别是帕金森氏病的功能衰退。帕金森氏神经系统疾病是一种退行性疾病，目前还没有治疗方法能够减缓其进展。然而，在一个大型的多中心研究中，80名早期帕金森症患者每天服用300、600或1200毫克的辅酶 q10。他们随访了16个月。那些接受辅酶 q10治疗的患者比那些接受安慰剂治疗的患者残疾程度更低，而且在接受最高剂量治疗的患者中获益最大
A short confirmatory study was conducted by scientists in Germany, giving CoQ10 in daily doses of 360 mg for four weeks to 28 Parkinsons patients. CoQ10 supplementation provided a mild but significant symptomatic benefit on Parkinsons symptoms and a significantly better improvement in performance compared with placebo.11
德国科学家进行了一项简短的验证性研究，给28名帕金森患者服用每日360毫克的辅酶 q10，为期四周。补充辅酶 q10与安慰剂相比，对帕金森症状有轻微但显著的症状改善作用，并且在表现上有显著的改善
Australian researchers recently reported a reduction of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c an indicator of blood sugar control) in a large group of hypertensive diabetics who received a daily CoQ10 dosage of 200 mg per day.6
糖尿病澳大利亚研究人员最近报告说，在一大群高血压糖尿病患者中，糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c 是血糖控制的指标)降低，这些患者每天服用200毫克辅酶 q10。6
In 1994, a dramatic report of two cancer patients treated with CoQ10 was published.12 The first was of a 59-year-old woman who had intraductal carcinoma (cancer) of the left breast, which resolved completely on a daily dose of 390 mg CoQ10. A second patient, after breast surgery, was found to have residual intraductal carcinoma in the tumor bed. She refused additional surgery, and was placed on 300 mg CoQ10 per day.
癌症1994年，发表了一篇关于两位癌症患者使用辅酶 q10治疗的戏剧性报道。第一位患者是一位患有左乳癌的59岁妇女，每天服用390毫克辅酶 q10，原位导管癌完全消失。第二个病人，在乳房手术后，被发现在肿瘤床上有残余的原位导管癌。她拒绝了额外的手术，并且每天服用300毫克辅酶 q10。
Over a year later, there was no evidence of residual tumor or metastases. Despite practicing oncology for 35 years, over which he had treated about 200 cases of breast cancer per year, one of the authors commented that he had never [before] seen a spontaneous complete regression of a 1.5-2.0 cm breast tumor and ha[d] never seen a comparable regression on any conventional anti-tumor therapy.
A more recent study indicated that breast cancer is associated with a decrease of plasma CoQ10 levels, and the worse the cancer, the greater the decrease in CoQ10.13
最近的一项研究表明，乳腺癌与血浆辅酶 q10水平的下降有关，而且癌症越严重，辅酶 q10.13的下降就越大
CoQ10 is dramatically effective in treating periodontal disease, a common malady of aging. In an early study, eight patients received CoQ10 at 25 mg, twice a day, versus a placebo group. The results showed a reduction in pocket depth with photographic evidence of improved gingival health.14 In a more recent study, CoQ10 was used topically, with significant improvement.15
牙周疾病 ecoq10在治疗一种常见的老化疾病—- Periodontal disease 方面显著有效。在一项早期研究中，8名患者服用25毫克的辅酶 q10，每天两次，而对照组则服用安慰剂。在最近的一项研究中，辅酶 q10被局部使用，有显著的改善
Dr. Ram B. Singh of the Heart Research Laboratory and Center for Nutrition in Moradabad, India, reported on a new indication for CoQ10 therapy, in a patient with acute glomerulonephritis, renal failure and high levels of lipid peroxides. He administered 180 mg per day of CoQ10, with a resultant lowering of lipid peroxides and significant improvement in renal function.16
肾衰竭。Moradabad 心脏研究实验室和营养中心的 Ram b. Singh 报告了一种辅酶 q10治疗的新适应症，用于一位患有急性肾小球肾炎、肾衰竭和高水平脂质过氧化物的病人。他每天给予辅酶 q10180毫克，结果降低了脂质过氧化物，显著改善了肾功能
In a follow-up study of 11 patients with chronic renal failure (serum creatinine levels were 5 mg/dL or above) who were on intermittent dialysis, Dr. Singh again administered CoQ10 at a dosage of 180 mg per day. After four weeks of treatment, the patients experienced significant reductions in serum creatinine and blood urea and significant increases in creatinine clearance and urine output, and fewer subjects required dialysis.17
在一项对11名接受间歇性透析的慢性肾衰竭患者(血清肌酐水平为5毫克/分升或以上)的随访研究中，Singh 医生再次以每天180毫克的剂量给予辅酶 q10。经过四周的治疗，患者的血清肌酐和血尿素明显减少，肾功能和尿量明显增加，需要透析的人数减少
Life Extension Research with CoQ10
Dr. Bliznakovs Mouse Experiment
One of the earliest anti-aging experiments with CoQ10 was conducted in 1980 by Dr. Emile G. Bliznakov, a pioneering CoQ10 researcher. Bliznakov divided middle-aged (16 to 18 months) white mice into two groups: one group received regular injections of CoQ10 while the other received a placebo injection (salt water). Bliznakov found that all of the mice in the saline (control group) died within eight months after the start of the experiment, whereas the CoQ10 animals survived to significantly greater maximum lifespan (up to 12 more months). The mean survival time was extended by 56 percent (Fig. 1).18
最早用辅酶 q10进行的抗衰老实验之一是1980年由辅酶 q10研究先驱埃米尔 · g · 布里兹纳科夫博士进行的。利兹纳科夫将16-18个月的中年白鼠分为两组: 一组定期注射辅酶 q10，另一组注射安慰剂(盐水)。利兹纳科夫发现，生理盐水中的所有小鼠(对照组)在实验开始后8个月内死亡，而辅酶 q10小鼠的最大寿命明显延长(长达12个月)。平均存活时间延长了56% (图1)
Dr. Fahys Mouse Experiment
Similar results were also reported in an unpublished study by Dr. Gregory M. Fahy, then Director of the Organ Cryopreservation Laboratory at the American Red Cross Jerome Holland Laboratory in Rockville, Md.19 I recently discussed Dr. Fahys findings with him at the 33rd Annual Meeting of the American Aging Association in St. Petersberg, Fla. Dr. Fahy confirmed his observations, in female mice of a different strain, although no effect on the mean lifespan of male mice was seen (probably because only five male mice were examined).
19. 我最近在佛罗里达州 St. Petersberg 举行的美国老龄化协会第33届年会上与他讨论了法伊斯博士的研究结果。他当时是美国红十字会荷兰实验室器官深低温保存实验室的主任。法伊博士证实了他的观察，在不同品系的雌性小鼠中，尽管没有观察到对雄性小鼠平均寿命的影响(可能是因为只有五只雄性小鼠被检查)。
Drs. Harris and Coles Mouse Experiments at UCLA
Another longevity study with CoQ10 was completed in 1994 by Dr. Steven Harris, at Dr. Roy Walfords Laboratory at the UCLA Medical Center in Los Angeles. Walfords lab was especially suited for longevity experiments because of his pioneering work in the study of the anti-aging effects of caloric restriction. Dr. Walford (see box at right) was one of the first scientists to document the delay in the decline of the immune system in calorie-restricted mice.
1994年，洛杉矶加州大学洛杉矶分校医学中心罗伊 · 沃尔福德实验室的史蒂文 · 哈里斯博士完成了另一项关于辅酶 q10的长寿研究。沃尔福德实验室特别适合于长寿实验，因为他在研究限制热量摄入的抗衰老作用方面具有开创性的工作。沃尔福德博士(见右边的方框)是最早记录热量限制小鼠免疫系统衰退延迟的科学家之一。
Two groups of female mice were used. The first group was placed on a mildly restricted diet to ensure against obesity (which happens in this strain with ad lib feeding), and to mimic the average nonobese health-conscious consumer. The second group was given this diet with 0.1 percent CoQ10 added by weight of food. This dosage was equivalent to a human dosage of approximately 750 mg of CoQ10 per day.
用两组雌性小鼠进行实验。第一组被放置在一个温和限制饮食，以确保防止肥胖(这发生在这种应变与自由喂养) ，并模仿一般非肥胖的健康意识的消费者。第二组的饮食中添加了0.1% 的辅酶 q10。这个剂量相当于人类每天大约750毫克辅酶 q10的剂量。
At 39 months of age (which is close to the 42-month maximum lifespan for these mice), 50 percent of the CoQ10 treated mice were still alive, compared with only 25 percent of the control animals. The average lifespan for the controls was 30.8 months, whereas the average lifespan of the CoQ10 group was 37.0 months (a 20 percent increase).
在39个月大的时候(接近这些老鼠42个月的最大寿命) ，50% 的辅酶 q10治疗的老鼠仍然活着，而对照组只有25% 。对照组的平均寿命为30.8个月，而辅酶 q10组的平均寿命为37.0个月(增加了20%)。
A few days after the 43-month mark, however, all animals in both groups were dead, demonstrating that although CoQ10 achieved a significant rectangularization of the survival curve, a true right shift or extension of the entire curve to the right was not achieved (Fig. 2). The last CoQ10 treated animal only outlived the last control by four days.
然而，在43个月后的几天，两组的所有动物都死亡了，这表明虽然 CoQ10实现了生存曲线的一个显著的矩形化，但是整个曲线向右的一个真正的右移或延长并没有实现(图2)。最后一次喂食辅酶 q10的动物只比最后一次喂食的动物多活了4天。
The scientists reported that animals that received CoQ10 appeared to be much healthier than the control animals. The most spectacular difference between the two groups, however, was the far greater level of activity in the CoQ10 animals at about the 50 percent survival point than in the control animals (which appeared to be close to death in many cases).
科学家们报告说，接受辅酶 q10的动物似乎比对照组的动物健康得多。然而，两组动物之间最引人注目的区别是，在存活率为50% 时，辅酶 q10动物的活性水平远远高于对照组动物(在许多情况下，辅酶 q10似乎接近死亡)。
Coles and Harris suggest that CoQ10 may be able to slow some deteriorative processes that are associated with aging in laboratory mice, although there was no retardation of the increase in the mortality rate.
Most significantly, although the maximum lifespan of the animals was not increased, the average lifespan of the animals was increased by 20 percent. To fully appreciate the
significance of a 20 percent increase, consider that scientists have estimated that a total cure of all cancers would result in an increase in the average human lifespan of only 4 percent.20
最重要的是，虽然动物的最长寿命没有增加，但动物的平均寿命增加了20% 。为了充分认识到增加20% 的重要性，科学家们估计，所有癌症的完全治愈只会导致人类平均寿命增加4%
Finnish Rat and Mouse Experiment
A subsequent study in 1998 by scientists in Finland produced disappointing results, however.21 The scientists administered CoQ10 to rats and mice, at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day. This dose is roughly comparable to the dosage used by Drs.Coles and Harris in the UCLA study previously described. The results indicated that CoQ10 had no significant effect, positive or negative, on the lifespan of either the rats or mice.
然而，1998年芬兰科学家的后续研究得出了令人失望的结果。21. 科学家们给大鼠和小鼠注射辅酶 q10，剂量为每天10毫克/公斤。这个剂量大致相当于加州大学洛杉矶分校科尔斯博士和哈里斯博士在先前描述的研究中使用的剂量。结果表明，辅酶 q10对大鼠和小鼠的寿命均无明显影响，无论是阳性还是阴性。
Spanish Rat Experiment
Scientists in Spain recently published another report of the lifespan-extending properties of CoQ10 in rats. In their study, they used two groups of rats fed a diet that contained 8 percent fat (containing 61 percent polyunsaturated fatty acids).
西班牙老鼠实验西班牙科学家最近发表了另一篇关于老鼠体内辅酶 q10延长寿命特性的报告。在他们的研究中，他们用两组老鼠喂食含有8% 脂肪(含有61% 多不饱和脂肪酸)的食物。
The experimental groups diet was supplemented with 0.7 mg/kg/day of CoQ10. The supplemented animals reached a significantly higher mean lifespan (2.5 months, or 11.7 percent higher than the controls) and a significantly higher maximum lifespan (six months, or 24 percent higher) (Fig. 3).22Japanese Nematode Experiment
Finally, another positive study has just been published indicating that CoQ10 extends the lifespan of nematodes (Fig. 4).23 The scientists used CoQ10 concentrations of 50 and 150 mcg/ml of distilled water. Admittedly, extending the lifespan of a nematode is less exciting than extending the lifespan of a mammal, but it is a further indication that something positive is going on at a fundamental level.
实验组日粮辅酶 q100.7 mg/kg/d。日本线虫实验最后，刚刚发表的另一个阳性研究表明，CoQ10延长了线虫的寿命(图4)。23科学家们使用的 CoQ10浓度分别为50和150微克/毫升的蒸馏水。诚然，延长线虫的寿命没有延长哺乳动物的寿命那么令人兴奋，但它进一步表明，在基本层面上，正在发生一些积极的事情。
CoQ10 appears to qualify as a highly beneficial anti-aging nutrient, based on its multiple mechanisms of action, its broad range of effects on a number of life-threatening or debilitating clinical conditions, its lifespan-extending properties in more than one species, and complete absence of adverse effects. Beneficial effects have been demonstrated in some conditions with as little as 30 to 60 mg per day.
Of the known lifespan studies with CoQ10 (four mouse, two rat, and one nematode), two of the mouse studies (Bliznakovs and Fahys) resulted in increased maximum lifespan, one resulted in increased mean lifespan (Coles and Harris), and one showed no change; one rat study showed no change; and one rat and nematode study each resulted in increased mean and maximum lifespan.
在已知的 CoQ10寿命研究(4只小鼠、2只大鼠和1条线虫)中，两项小鼠研究(Bliznakovs 和 Fahys)导致最大寿命延长，一项导致平均寿命延长(Coles 和 Harris) ，一项没有变化; 一项大鼠研究没有变化; 一项大鼠和线虫研究各导致平均寿命延长和最大寿命延长。
The more serious the condition, the greater the dose that should be taken. As research continues to accumulate, it appears that the higher the dosage the greater the benefit (as evidenced by the 390 mg dose in breast cancer, and 1,200 mg dose in Parkinsons disease), and that the only limiting factor on CoQ10 dosage is the cost.
病情越严重，应服用的剂量就越大。随着研究的不断积累，似乎剂量越大益处越大(乳腺癌390毫克剂量，帕金森病1200毫克剂量) ，唯一限制辅酶 q10剂量的因素是成本。