浆果、苹果和茶可以预防老年痴呆症

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Berries, Apples and Tea May Protect Against Alzheimer’s Disease

By 作者 NutritionReview.org -May 7, 2020 2020年5月7日11263

Older adults who consumed small amounts of flavonoid-rich foods, such as berries, apples and tea, were two to four times more likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias over 20 years compared with people whose intake was higher, according to a new study led by scientists at the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging (USDA HNRCA) at Tufts University.

根据塔夫茨大学 Jean Mayer USDA 人类营养研究中心的科学家们所做的一项新研究表明,与摄入量较高的人相比,食用少量富含黄酮类化合物的食物,如浆果、苹果和茶叶的老年人在20年内患老年痴呆症和相关痴呆症的可能性要高出2到4倍。

The epidemiological study of 2,800 people aged 50 and older examined the long-term relationship between eating foods containing flavonoids and risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD). While many studies have looked at associations between nutrition and dementias over short periods of time, the study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition looked at exposure over 20 years.

通过对2800名50岁及以上人群的流行病学调查,研究了食用含有黄酮类化合物的食物与阿尔茨海默病(AD)、阿尔茨海默病(AD)及相关痴呆(ADRD)风险之间的长期关系。虽然很多研究都是在短时间内观察营养与痴呆症之间的关系,但这项发表在《美国临床营养学杂志》上的研究观察了20多年来痴呆症的暴露情况。

Flavonoids are natural substances found in plants, including fruits and vegetables such as pears, apples, berries, onions, and plant-based beverages like tea and wine. Flavonoids are associated with various health benefits, including reduced inflammation. Dark chocolate is another source of flavonoids. 类黄酮是存在于植物中的天然物质,包括水果和蔬菜,如梨、苹果、浆果、洋葱和植物性饮料,如茶和葡萄酒。黄酮类化合物与各种健康益处有关,包括减少炎症。黑巧克力是类黄酮的另一种来源

The research team determined that low intake of three flavonoid types was linked to higher risk of dementia when compared to the highest intake. Specifically:

研究小组确定,与摄入量最高的人相比,摄入量较低的三种类黄酮与患痴呆症的风险较高有关。具体来说:

  • Low intake of flavonols (apples, pears and tea) was associated with twice the risk of developing ADRD. 低摄入黄酮醇(苹果,梨和茶)与患 ADRD 的风险增加一倍
  • Low intake of anthocyanins (blueberries, strawberries, and red wine) was associated with a four-fold risk of developing ADRD. 花青素摄入量低(蓝莓、草莓和红酒)与患 ADRD 的风险有四倍的关系
  • Low intake of flavonoid polymers (apples, pears, and tea) was associated with twice the risk of developing ADRD. 低摄入类黄酮聚合物(苹果、梨和茶)与患 ADRD 的风险增加一倍

The results were similar for AD.

AD 的结果也是类似的。

“Our study gives us a picture of how diet over time might be related to a person’s cognitive decline, as we were able to look at flavonoid intake over many years prior to participants’ dementia diagnoses,” said Paul Jacques, senior author and nutritional epidemiologist at the USDA HNRCA. “With no effective drugs currently available for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, preventing disease through a healthy diet is an important consideration.”

“我们的研究为我们提供了一幅饮食随着时间的推移如何可能与一个人的认知能力下降有关的图景,因为我们可以在参与者被诊断为痴呆症之前多年观察类黄酮的摄入量,”美国农业部 HNRCA 的资深作家和营养流行病学家保罗 · 雅克说。“由于目前还没有有效的药物来治疗阿尔茨海默氏症,通过健康的饮食来预防疾病是一个重要的考虑因素。”

The researchers analyzed six types of flavonoids and compared long-term intake levels with the number of AD and ADRD diagnoses later in life.

研究人员分析了六种类型的黄酮类化合物,并比较了长期摄入量与 AD 和 ADRD 后期诊断的数量。

They found that low intake (15th percentile or lower) of three flavonoid types was linked to higher risk of dementia when compared to the highest intake (greater than 60th percentile). Examples of the levels studied included: 他们发现三种类黄酮摄入量低(15% 或更低)与最高摄入量(大于60%)相比,患痴呆症的风险更高。所研究的水平的例子包括:

Low intake (15th percentile or lower) was equal to no berries (anthocyanins) per month, roughly one-and-a-half apples per month (flavonols), and no tea (flavonoid polymers).
High intake (60th percentile or higher) was equal to roughly 7.5 cups of blueberries or strawberries (anthocyanins) per month, 8 apples and pears per month (flavonols), and 19 cups of tea per month (flavonoid polymers).

低摄入量(15% 或更低)相当于每月没有浆果(花青素) ,大约每月1.5个苹果(黄酮醇) ,没有茶(黄酮类聚合物)。高摄入量(60% 或更高)大约相当于每月7.5杯蓝莓或草莓(花青素) ,8个苹果和梨(黄酮醇) ,19杯茶(类黄酮聚合物)。

“Tea, specifically green tea, and berries are good sources of flavonoids,” said first author Esra Shishtar, who at the time of the study was a doctoral student at the Gerald J. and Dorothy R. Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University in the Nutritional Epidemiology Program at the USDA HNRCA.

第一作者 Esra Shishtar 说: 茶,特别是绿茶和浆果是黄酮类化合物的良好来源,他在研究期间是 Gerald j. 的教授的博士生和塔夫茨大学的 Dorothy r. Friedman 营养科学和政策学院的营养流行病学计划的美国农业部 HNRCA 的营养学家。

“When we look at the study results, we see that the people who may benefit the most from consuming more flavonoids are people at the lowest levels of intake, and it doesn’t take much to improve levels. A cup of tea a day or some berries two or three times a week would be adequate,” she said. “当我们看研究结果时,我们发现那些摄入更多类黄酮最多的人是摄入量最低的人,并且并不需要太多的改善。一天喝一杯茶或者一周吃两三次浆果就足够了

Jacques also said 50, the approximate age at which data was first analyzed for participants, is not too late to make positive dietary changes. “The risk of dementia really starts to increase over age 70, and the take home message is, when you are approaching 50 or just beyond, you should start thinking about a healthier diet if you haven’t already,” he said.

雅克还说,50岁,这个最初分析参与者数据的大致年龄,现在做出积极的饮食改变还不算太晚。他说: “痴呆症的风险在70岁以后真的开始增加,而且带回家的信息是,当你接近50岁或刚过50岁时,如果你还没有开始考虑更健康的饮食,你应该开始思考。”。

Methodology

方法论

To measure long-term flavonoid intake, the research team used dietary questionnaires, filled out at medical exams approximately every four years by participants in the Framingham Heart Study, a largely Caucasian group of people who have been studied over several generations for risk factors of heart disease.

为了测量长期的类黄酮摄入量,研究小组使用饮食问卷,由弗雷明汉心脏研究中心(Framingham Heart Study)的参与者大约每四年在医疗检查中填写一次。弗雷明汉心脏研究中心是一个主要由高加索人组成的研究小组,几代人都在研究心脏病的风险因素。

To increase the likelihood that dietary information was accurate, the researchers excluded questionnaires from the years leading up to the dementia diagnosis, based on the assumption that, as cognitive status declined, dietary behavior may have changed, and food questionnaires were more likely to be inaccurate.

为了增加饮食信息准确性的可能性,研究人员排除了痴呆症诊断前几年的调查问卷,基于这样的假设: 随着认知状态的下降,饮食行为可能已经改变,食物调查问卷更有可能是不准确的。

The participants were from the Offspring Cohort (children of the original participants), and the data came from exams 5 through 9. At the start of the study, the participants were free of AD and ADRD, with a valid food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Flavonoid intakes were updated at each exam to represent cumulative average intake across the five exam cycles.

参与者来自“后代群”(原参与者的子女) ,数据来自第5至第9次考试。在研究开始时,参与者没有 AD 和 ADRD,在基线时有一份有效的食物频率问卷。黄酮类化合物的摄入量在每次考试中更新,以代表五个考试周期的累积平均摄入量。

Researchers categorized flavonoids into six types and created four intake levels based on percentiles: less than or equal to the 15th percentile, 15th-30th percentile, 30th-60th percentile, and greater than 60th percentile. They then compared flavonoid intake types and levels with new diagnoses of AD and ADRD.

研究人员将黄酮类化合物分为六种类型,并根据百分位数确定了四个摄入水平: 小于或等于第15百分位数、第15-30百分位数、第30-60百分位数和大于第60百分位数。然后,他们比较了类黄酮的摄入类型和水平与 AD 和 ADRD 的新诊断。

There are some limitations to the study, including the use of self-reported food data from food frequency questionnaires, which are subject to errors in recall. The findings are generalizable to middle-aged or older adults of European descent. Factors such as education level, smoking status, physical activity, body mass index and overall quality of the participants’ diets may have influenced the results, but researchers accounted for those factors in the statistical analysis. Due to its observational design, the study does not reflect a causal relationship between flavonoid intake and the development of AD and ADRD.

这项研究有一些局限性,包括使用自我报告的食物频率问卷调查数据,这些数据容易在回忆中出错。这些发现适用于欧洲血统的中老年人。受试者的教育程度、吸烟状况、身体活动、体重指数和饮食的总体质量等因素可能会影响研究结果,但研究人员在统计分析中考虑了这些因素。由于其观察设计,这项研究并没有反映类黄酮摄入量与 AD 和 ADRD 的发展之间的因果关系。

Source: Paul F Jacques, Rhoda Au, Jeffrey B Blumberg, Gail T Rogers, Esra Shishtar. Long-term dietary flavonoid intake and risk of Alzheimer disease and related dementias in the Framingham Offspring Cohort. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2020; DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa079

来源: Paul f Jacques,Rhoda Au,Jeffrey b Blumberg,Gail t Rogers,Esra Shishtar。长期膳食类黄酮摄入与弗雷明汉后代群体中阿兹海默病和相关痴呆的风险。美国临床营养学杂志,2020; DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa079

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