Betaine (trimethylglycine) is an active metabolite of 甜菜碱(甜菜碱)是一种活性代谢产物Choline 胆碱 in the body and a component of 体内的一种成分beetroot 甜菜根. It serves a vital role in methylation in the body alongside folate, and is an osmoregulator like 。它与叶酸一起在体内的甲基化中发挥重要作用，是一种类似渗透调节剂的物质Creatine 肌酸. Betaine is also a possible ergogenic aid. 。甜菜碱也是一个可能的助产剂
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Summary of Trimethylglycine
Primary information, health benefits, side effects, usage, and other important details
Trimethylglycine (TMG) is a molecule which, structurally, is the amino acid Glycine with three methyl groups attached to it. It is known as a ‘betaine’ molecule (‘betaine’ being a category of molecules), but because it was the first dietary betaine discovered (from beetroot) and it is the most popular molecule referred to as a betaine, the terms ‘trimethylglycine’ and ‘betaine’ are used interchangeably.
甜菜碱(TMG)是一种分子，在结构上是一种带有三个甲基的氨基酸甘氨酸。它被称为‘甜菜碱’分子(‘甜菜碱’是一类分子) ，但是因为它是第一个被发现的食用甜菜碱(来自甜菜根) ，而且它是最受欢迎的被称为甜菜碱的分子，所以‘甜菜碱’和‘甜菜碱’这两个术语可以互换使用。
The main mechanisms of betaine are either its usage as a methyl donor, where it either directly donates a methyl group to reduce homocysteine into L-methionine (seen as cardioprotective) or it increases bodily levels of S-Adenosyl Methionine (SAMe) or active folate molecules, and those two can then go on to donate methyl groups to other parts of the body. Due to this, supplementation of betaine is able to indirectly support whole-body methylation, and directly support a reduction in homocysteine (which is reliably observed following moderate to high dose supplementation.
甜菜碱的主要作用机制要么是它作为甲基供体的用途，它要么直接捐赠甲基，将同型半胱氨酸还原成 l- 蛋氨酸(被视为心脏保护性物质) ，要么增加身体内 s- 腺苷蛋氨酸(相同)或活性叶酸分子的水平，然后这两种物质可以将甲基捐赠给身体的其他部位。因此，补充甜菜碱能间接支持全身甲基化，并直接支持降低同型半胱氨酸(可靠地观察到中高剂量补充。
The other major mechanism is that betaine is as an osmolyte, or a molecule that is shuttled in and out of a cell to affect its hydration status. Similar to Creatine, increased intracellular concentrations of betaine promote cell hydration and resilience to stressors.
Betaine (also known as TMG) is an ‘osmolyte’, a molecule that regulates water balance in cells. Betaine can directly methylate homocysteine, which is cardioprotective. It also indirectly affects folate and SAMe metabolism to support whole body methylation. 甜菜碱(又称 TMG)是一种“渗透液” ，是一种调节细胞内水平衡的分子。甜菜碱可直接作用于同型半胱氨酸，具有心肌保护作用。它也间接影响叶酸和同样的代谢来支持整个身体的甲基化
When looking at the human evidence at this moment in time, it appears that betaine is effective and reliable for reducing homocysteine concentrations when taken daily at 3g or more. A single dose of betaine reduces homocysteine levels, which remain suppressed as long as supplementation is continues. Betaine has been found to reduce homocysteine by 10% in persons with normal levels or by 20-40% in persons with elevated homocysteine levels.
此时此刻，看看人类的证据，似乎甜菜碱是有效和可靠的降低同型半胱氨酸浓度时，每天服用3克或更多。单剂量甜菜碱降低同型半胱氨酸水平，只要继续补充，同型半胱氨酸水平仍然受到抑制。已经发现甜菜碱可以使同型半胱氨酸在正常水平的人中降低10% ，或者在高同型半胱氨酸水平的人中降低20-40% 。
Homocysteine is known to be elevated in persons with cardiovascular health issues and is a biomarker of cardiovascular complications (ie. when homocysteine is elevated then the subject is also at a higher risk for problems). Correlation does not indicate causation, however, so it is not clear whether homocysteine is merely an indicator of problems (a biomarker) or may actually promote cardiovascular dysfunction. It is thought that reducing homocysteine is protective of the heart, but a direct link between betaine supplementation and cardiovascular protection in humans has not yet been established.
Elsewhere, although the evidence is a bit confusing at this time (preliminary evidence showing amazing promise and the one controlled study failing to replicate it, but more research being needed to confirm) betaine may have a role in treating fatty liver and the associated liver fibrosis when taken at high doses(20g daily).
In regards to health, betaine shows the most promise for liver and cardioprotection. In theory it should be highly protective, but studies directly evaluating links between betaine supplementation and improved health biomarkers do not yet exist. 就健康而言，甜菜碱对肝脏和心脏的保护作用最大。理论上它应该是高度保护性的，但是直接评价甜菜碱补充剂和改进的健康生物标志物之间的联系的研究还不存在
Finally, betaine has been recommended as a performance enhancing compound, although with quite unreliable results. When taken at 1.25g twice daily, betaine has at times been linked to increased power output (only to fail in other instances) and minor increases in workout volume and endurance (a bit more reliable than power output, but still not a consensus). The overall effect size or how much betaine benefits the subject seem to be quite small, and at this moment in time all studies finding benefit with betaine supplementation have been associated with Danisco (DuPont Nutrition) a producer of betaine.
最后，甜菜碱被推荐作为一种性能增强化合物，虽然结果相当不可靠。当每天两次以1.25克的重量摄入甜菜碱时，甜菜碱有时会增加体能输出(在其他情况下只会失败) ，并且会增加运动量和耐力(比体能输出稍微可靠一点，但仍然不是一个共识)。甜菜碱的整体效应大小或者说甜菜碱对受试者的益处程度似乎相当小，此时此刻，所有发现甜菜碱补充物有益的研究都与甜菜碱生产商 Danisco (杜邦营养公司)有关。
The benefit of TMG to physical exercise, even if assumed to be present, may have little to no practical relevance since:
- Serum betaine is increased to a similar degree with 1g betaine as it is with 1g of Choline supplementation, and the latter may have some centrally acting (brain related) benefits to working out while possibly being cheaper血清甜菜碱与1克甜菜碱的增加程度与1克胆碱的增加程度相似，后者可能有一些集中作用(大脑相关)的好处，同时可能更便宜
- The theory that fits most with the observed benefits to physical performance (the osmolyte actions protecting a cell) is a mechanism not only able to be repeated with choline as mentioned earlier, but is a mechanism of action of Creatine; the lone study to evaluate the combination failed to find an additive effect of betaine on creatine’s benefits最符合观察到的对身体表现的益处(保护细胞的渗透液作用)的理论是一种机制，不仅可以用胆碱重复，而且是肌酸的作用机制; 评估这种联合作用的唯一研究未能找到甜菜碱对肌酸的益处的附加作用
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How to Take
Recommended dosage, active amounts, other details
The lowest active dose of betaine is 500mg taken throughout the course of the day. This is a dose that appears to be minimally active in reducing homocysteine and may be healthy to take, and doses of this up to 1,000mg seem to be in the range of being minimally active but also able to be gained through food consumption (so supplementation may not be needed).
The standard doses that seen to be used for dietary supplementation are in the range of 2,500-6,000mg taken in two divided doses daily, and taking said doses alongside a meal does not appear to be required. This is the dosage range which reliably reduces homocysteine, and is the dosage range where (unreliable and minimal) benefits to physical performance have been noted.
Studies on liver fat and fibrosis, and in some clinical settings on homocysteine reduction where the subject appears to be resistant to the 6g dose, the dosage can be increased up to 20g daily; this does appears to be moderately well tolerated (like any osmolyte, it may cause diarrhea in this high of a dose).