研究表明,睡眠中的快速眼动睡眠与死亡风险增加有关

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Study Links Loss of Dream-Stage REM Sleep to Higher Risk of Death

研究表明,睡眠中的快速眼动睡眠与死亡风险增加有关

By 作者 NutritionReview.org -July 16, 2020 2020年7月16日0552

Spending less time in REM sleep is linked to a greater overall risk of death from any cause, as well as from cardiovascular disease and other diseases except for cancer, a new study finds.“The effect of short REM time on mortality has not been previously shown,” said Dr. Vsevolod Polotsky, who directs Sleep Basic Research in the Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and was not involved in the study.

一项新的研究发现,睡眠时间越短,死于任何原因、心血管疾病和除癌症以外的其他疾病的总体风险就越大。博士是约翰·霍普金斯大学医学院肺部和重症监护医学部的睡眠基础研究主任,他没有参与这项研究。

REM, which stands for rapid eye movement, is the stage of sleep in which we dream and information and experiences are consolidated and stored in memory. REM 是快速眼动的缩写,是睡眠的一个阶段,在这个阶段我们做梦,信息和经历被巩固并储存在记忆中

“Among the different theories about REM sleep’s function are that it helps in forming new memories, stimulates the central nervous system, and restores brain chemistry to a normal balance,” said sleep specialist Dr. Raj Dasgupta, an assistant professor of clinical medicine at the Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California, who was also not involved in the study.

南加州大学凯克医学院(Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California)临床医学助理教授、睡眠专家拉吉 · 达斯古普塔(Raj Dasgupta)博士说,“关于 REM 睡眠功能的不同理论认为,REM 睡眠有助于形成新的记忆,刺激中枢神经系统,并使大脑化学物质恢复到正常的平衡状态。”达斯古普塔也没有参与这项研究。

Previous studies have shown “short REM duration may lead to memory deficit and poor cognitive outcomes,” while sleep apnea occurring during REM sleep has also been linked to high blood pressure and deaths from cardiovascular disease, said Polotsky.

波洛茨基说,以前的研究表明,“短暂的快速眼动期可能会导致记忆力减退和认知能力下降” ,而在快速眼动睡眠期间发生的睡眠呼吸暂停也与高血压和死于心血管疾病有关。

Despite the fact that no prior study had linked the REM stage of sleep to poor health outcomes, the new study’s findings were “not entirely surprising because sleep deprivation overall has been associated with high mortality, and low percentage of REM sleep may reflect poor quality of sleep in general,” Polotsky said.

尽管之前没有任何研究将快速眼动睡眠阶段与不良健康状况联系起来,但这项新研究的发现“并不完全令人惊讶,因为总体而言,快速眼动睡眠的睡眠剥夺与高死亡率有关,而快速眼动睡眠的低百分比可能反映了总体睡眠质量不佳,” Polotsky 说。

Loss of Dream State and Death Risk

梦境的丧失与死亡风险

The study, published in the journal JAMA Neurology, analyzed the sleep patterns of 2,675 men who participated in the clinical trial “Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men” (MrOS), which followed male sleep disruption between 2003 and 2016. Sleep was measured in an at-home sleep study at the beginning of the study and again over a four day period via a sleep watch.

这项研究发表在《美国医学会神经学》(JAMA Neurology)杂志上,研究分析了2675名男性的睡眠模式,他们参加了2003年至2016年间男性睡眠中断后的“老年男性睡眠障碍的结果”(MrOS)临床试验。研究开始时,研究人员在家中进行了睡眠研究,并通过睡眠观察在四天时间内再次进行了测量。

The study also analyzed data on 1,375 men and women who were part of the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort, now in its 22nd year, which measures the impact of sleep disorders, particularity sleep apnea, on health outcomes via a sleep study every four years.

这项研究也分析了1375名男性和女性的数据,他们是威斯康星睡眠队列的一部分,现在已经是第22年了,通过每四年一次的睡眠研究来衡量睡眠紊乱,特殊性睡眠呼吸暂停对健康结果的影响。

Men in the MrOS study had a 13% higher cardiovascular and overall death rate over a dozen years for every 5% loss of REM sleep, even after adjusting for multiple demographic, sleep and health variables.

参与 MrOS 研究的男性,即使在调整了多个人口统计学、睡眠和健康变量之后,在过去的十几年中,REM 睡眠每减少5% ,心血管疾病和总体死亡率就会增加13% 。

Results were mirrored in the Wisconsin study, even though study participants were younger, followed for a longer time frame — over 20 years — and included women.

威斯康星大学的研究也反映了这一结果,尽管研究参与者更年轻,跟踪时间更长(超过20年) ,其中包括女性。

“However, it is important to realize these findings are not a cause and effect but an association,” said Dasgupta, adding that there was also no control group, a key element of gold standard experimental studies.

“然而,重要的是要认识到,这些发现不是因果关系,而是一种联系,” Dasgupta 说,并补充说,也没有对照组,黄金标准实验研究的一个关键因素。

“However, in the case of REM sleep, it would be nearly impossible to control an individual’s REM sleep unless it was done artificially. Therefore, this study was probably as close as one could get to a prospective controlled trial,” Dasgupta added.

“然而,在快速眼动睡眠的情况下,除非人工进行,否则几乎不可能控制一个人的快速眼动睡眠。因此,这项研究可能是最接近于一个前瞻性对照试验,” Dasgupta 补充说。

Polotsky said the study did not include a representative sample of African Americans and other races, and may have not fully controlled for depression. Many of the participants were on antidepressants, which he said are known to affect REM sleep.

波洛茨基说,这项研究没有包括非裔美国人和其他种族的代表性样本,可能没有完全控制抑郁症。许多参与者都在服用抗抑郁药物,他说众所周知这会影响快速眼动睡眠。

“I would take [the study results] with a grain of caution. Further studies are needed to exclude a possible contribution of depression and to examine this relationship in other races,” Polotsky said.

“我对(研究结果)持谨慎态度。还需要进一步的研究来排除抑郁症的可能诱因,并在其他种族中检验这种关系。

Sleep Deprivation is Global

睡眠剥夺是全球性的

Poor sleep is a problem around the world. Depending on our age, people are supposed to get between seven and 10 hours of sleep each night.

睡眠不足是全世界的一个问题。根据我们的年龄,人们每晚应该有7到10个小时的睡眠。

But according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a third of us get fewer than seven hours of sleep per night. In addition, 50 million to 70 million Americans suffer from sleep disorders such as sleep apnea, insomnia and restless leg syndrome, which can ruin a good night’s shuteye.

但是根据美国疾病控制和预防中心的数据,三分之一的人每晚的睡眠时间少于7小时。此外,5000万至7000万美国人患有睡眠障碍,如睡眠呼吸暂停,失眠和不宁腿综合征,这可以破坏一个良好的睡眠。

And it’s not just in the United States. In bedrooms around the globe, men, women and children are tossing and turning. According to World Sleep Day statistics, sleep deprivation is threatening the health of up to 45% of the world’s population.

而且不仅仅是在美国。在世界各地的卧室里,男人、女人和孩子们辗转反侧。根据世界睡眠日的统计数据,睡眠剥夺正威胁着世界45% 人口的健康。

Those who get less than 4 hours or more than 10 hours of sleep raise their risk for an earlier death, studies have found, an association that remains for both sexes and all races and ethnicities around the world. 研究发现,睡眠时间少于4小时或超过10小时的人有提前死亡的风险,这种联系对全世界所有种族和性别都适用

The good news is that you can train your brain to achieve better sleep, thus giving your body time to spend in both REM and deep sleep, another key restorative sleep stage.

好消息是你可以训练你的大脑来获得更好的睡眠,这样你的身体就有时间进行快速眼动睡眠和深度睡眠,这是另一个关键的恢复性睡眠阶段。

One of the first tasks is to set up your sleep environment and establish a relaxing bedtime routine. The REM stage of sleep is a lighter level of rest that can more easily be disrupted, so strive for few sounds, little light, and cooler temperatures in the bedroom.

首要任务之一是建立你的睡眠环境,并建立一个放松的睡前常规。快速眼动睡眠阶段的休息时间较短,更容易被打断,所以尽量少发出声音,少接触灯光,卧室温度要低一些。

Avoid fatty, spicy foods before bed, so gastric distress doesn’t wake you while you’re dreaming.

睡前避免吃高脂肪、辛辣的食物,这样胃痛就不会在你做梦的时候吵醒你。

Alcohol is another no-no. You may think it helps you doze off, but you are more likely to wake in the night as your body begins to process the spirits, thus interrupting those beneficial stages of sleep.

酒精是另一个禁忌。你可能认为它有助于你打瞌睡,但你更可能在夜间醒来,因为你的身体开始处理精神,从而打断了那些有益的睡眠阶段。

Source: Association of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep With Mortality in Middle-aged and Older Adults, Eileen B. Leary, Kathleen T. Watson, Sonia Ancoli-Israel, et al., JAMA Neurol July 6, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.2108

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