研究集中在低碳水化合物,高脂肪饮食对老年人群的影响

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Study focuses on low-carb, high-fat diet effect on older populations

Date: 日期:August 20, 2020 2020年8月20日Source: 来源:University of Alabama at Birmingham 亚拉巴马大学伯明翰校区Summary: 摘要:Medical researchers noted improvements in body composition, fat distribution and metabolic health in response to an eight-week very low-carbohydrate diet. Older adults with obesity are at particularly high risk of developing cardiometabolic disease such as Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Rather than total fat mass, deposition of fat in certain areas, such as the abdominal cavity and skeletal muscle, may confer this greatest risk of disease development. 医学研究人员注意到,八周的低碳水化合物饮食可以改善身体成分、脂肪分布和新陈代谢健康。肥胖的老年人特别容易患心血管代谢疾病,如2型糖尿病和心血管疾病。而不是脂肪总量,脂肪沉积在某些地区,如腹腔和骨骼肌,可能造成这种疾病的最大风险发展Share: 分享:    FULL STORY 完整故事


A new study, published in Nutrition and Metabolism,from researchers with the University of Alabama at Birmingham’s Nutrition Obesity Research Center observed improvements in body composition, fat distribution and metabolic health in response to an eight-week, very low-carbohydrate diet.

亚拉巴马大学伯明翰校区营养肥胖研究中心的研究人员在《营养与代谢》杂志上发表了一项新的研究,他们观察到8周的低碳水化合物饮食对身体成分、脂肪分布和新陈代谢健康的改善。

Older adults with obesity are at particularly high risk of developing cardiometabolic disease such as Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Rather than total fat mass, deposition of fat in certain areas, such as the abdominal cavity and skeletal muscle, may confer this greatest risk of disease development.

肥胖的老年人特别容易患心血管代谢疾病,如2型糖尿病和心血管疾病。而不是脂肪总量,脂肪沉积在某些地区,如腹腔和骨骼肌,可能造成这种疾病的最大风险发展。

The study’s lead author is Amy Goss, Ph.D., RDN, an assistant professor with UAB’s Department of Nutrition Sciences. Goss says her team aimed to determine if a very low-carbohydrate, or VLCD, high-fat diet would deplete these fat depots and preserve lean mass without intentional caloric restriction in older adults with obesity, thereby improving outcomes related to cardiometabolic disease, such as insulin sensitivity and the lipid profile.

这项研究的主要作者是艾米 · 高斯博士,她是 UAB 营养科学系的助理教授。戈斯表示,她的研究小组旨在确定,非常低碳水化合物或 VLCD 的高脂肪饮食是否会耗尽这些脂肪储备,并在没有故意限制热量的情况下,保持肥胖老年人的瘦体重,从而改善与心血管代谢疾病相关的结果,如胰岛素敏感性和血脂状况。

“After the eight-week intervention, despite the recommendation to consume a weight-maintaining diet, the group consuming the very low-carbohydrate diet lost more weight and total fat mass than the control diet group,” Goss said.

“经过8周的干预后,尽管建议采用保持体重的饮食,但服用低碳水化合物饮食的一组比对照组减掉了更多的体重和总脂肪量,” Goss 说。

Egg consumption was an important part of the VLCD prescription. Goss and her team provided eggs to the participants in this diet group and asked them to consume at least three per day.

鸡蛋消耗量是 VLCD 配方的重要组成部分。戈斯和她的团队向这组参与者提供鸡蛋,并要求他们每天至少吃三个。

“While eggs were a part of this study, we can’t conclude that our findings are a result of daily egg consumption; but I think what we can conclude is that whole eggs can be incorporated into the diet in a healthful way without adversely impacting blood cholesterol in older adults,” she said.

“虽然鸡蛋是这项研究的一部分,但我们不能得出结论说,我们的研究结果是每天吃鸡蛋的结果; 但我认为我们可以得出的结论是,整个鸡蛋可以以健康的方式纳入饮食,而不会对老年人的血液胆固醇产生不利影响,”她说。

The primary difference in fat lost between the two groups was from the abdominal cavity and the skeletal muscle depots.

两组脂肪损失的主要差异来自腹腔和骨骼肌库。

“We also found significant improvements in the overall lipid profile that would reflect decreased risk of cardiovascular disease,” Goss said. “Further, insulin sensitivity improved in response to the very low-carbohydrate diet reflecting reduced risk of Type 2 diabetes. Overall, we observed improvements in body composition, fat distribution and metabolic health in response to an eight-week, very low-carbohydrate diet.”

戈斯说: “我们还发现总体血脂水平有显著改善,这反映了心血管疾病风险的降低。”。“此外,胰岛素敏感性的改善正是由于低碳水化合物饮食降低了2型糖尿病的风险。总的来说,我们观察到在8周的低碳水化合物饮食后,身体成分、脂肪分布和代谢健康都有所改善。”

VLCD effect on diabetes

VLCD 对糖尿病的影响

Goss says VLCDs are a therapeutic option for many conditions, including Type 2 diabetes, obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

戈斯说,VLCDs 是许多情况下的治疗选择,包括2型糖尿病,肥胖和非酒精性脂肪肝疾病。

“This study extends previous research to show that it can be a safe, therapeutic option for older adults in their 70s experiencing obesity,” she said. “This is the first study to demonstrate depletion of ‘metabolically harmful’ fat depots while preserving skeletal muscle during weight loss in response to a VLCD in older adults.”

“这项研究延伸了先前的研究,表明它可以是一个安全的,治疗选择,为70多岁的老年人经历肥胖,”她说。“这是首次证明老年人在减肥过程中消耗‘有害新陈代谢的’脂肪库,同时保留骨骼肌,以应对 VLCD。”

Goss adds that there is quite a bit of evidence about the benefits of a very low-carbohydrate diet in younger populations, and this study was one of the first to test this dietary approach to improve outcomes related to obesity in adults older than age 65 — a population at particularly high risk of other diseases and in need of therapeutic interventions to improve health while preserving skeletal muscle mass to prevent or delay functional decline with age.

补充说,有相当多的证据表明,非常年轻的人群中,低碳水化合物饮食的好处,这项研究是第一个测试这种饮食方法,以改善与65岁以上的成年人肥胖相关的结果—- 一个人口特别高风险的其他疾病,需要治疗干预,以改善健康,同时保留骨骼肌肉群,以防止或延迟功能衰退与年龄。

A good or bad egg?

好蛋还是坏蛋?

“Historically, eggs have received a bad rap beginning with the nutrition guidelines on egg consumption set forth by the American Heart Association in 1968,” Goss said. “It was recommended that no more than three whole eggs be consumed each week.”

戈斯说: “从历史上看,自1968年美国心脏协会制定鸡蛋营养指南以来,鸡蛋一直受到不良评价。”。“建议每周食用整个鸡蛋不超过三个。”

Goss adds that the concern stemmed from the cholesterol and saturated fat content of the egg yolk. Since then, these recommendations have loosened because more recent research demonstrated the negligible impact of dietary cholesterol on blood cholesterol. And just this month, the Dietary Guideline Advisory Committee issued recommendations to increase the consumption of eggs across the lifespan, including pregnant and lactating women, and also as a first food for infants and toddlers.

戈斯补充说,这种担忧源于蛋黄中的胆固醇和饱和脂肪含量。从那时起,这些建议开始放松,因为最近的研究表明,膳食胆固醇对血液胆固醇的影响微不足道。就在这个月,膳食指南咨询委员会发布建议,在整个生命周期增加鸡蛋的消费,包括孕妇和哺乳期妇女,也作为婴幼儿的第一食品。

“This historical first for the Dietary Guidelines Committee recognized eggs as an important, nutrient-rich food source, as eggs are a rich source of protein, choline, B12, selenium, vitamin D and a long list of other nutrients vital to growth and development as well as maintenance of muscle mass,” Goss said.

戈斯说: “这是膳食指南委员会历史上第一次认识到鸡蛋是一种重要的、营养丰富的食物来源,因为鸡蛋富含蛋白质、胆碱、 B12、硒、维生素 d 以及其他一长串对生长发育和维持肌肉质量至关重要的营养素。”。


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