BioPQQ®: demonstrable results in improving brain health
Evidence is growing that this extensively studied compound has an important role in supporting brain health and preventing cognitive disease. Here, a look at the current science.
Over the years hundreds of studies have investigated roles for BioPQQ, with the strongest evidence pointing to its cell signaling, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. To date, the most promising research suggests that these properties enable BioPQQ to play a role in preserving and improving cognitive function, both in animals and humans. In addition, more research is needed to confirm early encouraging findings that the compound may also support heart health and aid in the management of stress, sleep, and fatigue.
The compound is found in vegetables, fruits, eggs, dairy products and some fermented foods, as well as in human and animal tissue; concentrations are especially high in human breast milk.1,2 There is no evidence that humans and animals can synthesize BioPQQ, so external sources of the compound, such as foods and dietary supplements, may be important in maintaining tissue levels
越来越多的证据表明，这种被广泛研究的化合物在支持大脑健康和预防认知疾病方面具有重要作用。在这里，我们来看看当前的科学。多年来，数百项研究调查了 BioPQQ 的作用，最有力的证据表明其具有细胞信号传导、抗氧化和抗炎等特性。迄今为止，最有前途的研究表明，这些特性使得 BioPQQ 能够在保存和改善动物和人类的认知功能方面发挥作用。此外，还需要更多的研究来证实早期令人鼓舞的发现，即这种化合物可能还有助于心脏健康，有助于管理压力、睡眠和疲劳。这种化合物存在于蔬菜、水果、鸡蛋、乳制品和一些发酵食品中，也存在于人类和动物的组织中; 人类母乳中的浓度尤其高。1,2没有证据表明人类和动物可以合成 BioPQQ，因此这种化合物的外部来源，如食品和膳食补充剂，可能对维持组织水平很重要
BioPQQ®: A higher standard
BioPQQ® is a natural source of pyrroloquinolone quinone, derived by a patented fermentation process by the Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company (MGC) following highest standards for purity. It is manufactured to food-grade standards and is the only supplement of its kind that has been approved for New Dietary Ingredient (NDI) status by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
With MGC’s commitment to pioneer an effort for more clinical data and research, BioPQQ is also the most widely studied. Its safety has been evaluated in several published animal and in vitro human toxicity studies—including a battery of genotoxicity tests.3,4 In clinical trials in humans ranging from 8 to 24 weeks, no side effects or adverse biochemical and functional liver test findings have been reported.
随着 MGC 致力于开拓更多的临床数据和研究，BioPQQ 也是研究最广泛的。已发表的几项动物和体外人体毒性研究，包括一系列基因毒性试验，均对其安全性进行了评价。3,4在8至24周的人体临床试验中，没有报告出现副作用或不良的生化和功能性肝脏试验结果。
Since 1980, hundreds of studies have been conducted with MGC-sourced PQQ (PubMed.gov database). At the time of this writing, BioPQQ is the only food-grade supplement of its kind that has been tested in humans.
自1980年以来，利用来自 mgc 的 PQQ (pubmed. gov 数据库)进行了数百项研究。在写这篇文章的时候，BioPQQ 是唯一一款经过人体试验的食品级补充剂。
The importance of higher brain functioning to quality of life
Mental function is a critical component of maintenance and improvement of quality of life, especially in the elderly. A decline in an individual’s cognitive status, and the reduction in their abilities to perform activities of daily living, can strongly influence their perception of their own quality of life.
In the elderly, the burden of oxidative stress—a process increased in the brain with aging—can impair memory, learning and other higher brain functions. Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), combined with declines in the antioxidant system, can contribute to neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s Disease and other dementias.
对于老年人来说，氧化应激的负担—- 大脑随着年龄的增长而增加—- 会损害记忆、学习和其他更高级的大脑功能。过量的活性氧类，加上抗氧化系统的下降，可能导致神经退行性疾病，包括阿尔茨海默病和其他痴呆症。
Antioxidant substances and food ingredients that remove active oxygen have been shown to improve brain function in memory and learning. BioPQQ has robust antioxidant effects,5significantly higher than both Vitamin C and Vitamin E—potentially protective for neurons in the brain, which are susceptible to lethal damage from oxidative stress. Besides acting as an antioxidant, research suggests that BioPQQ can facilitate nerve regeneration.6,7
抗氧化物质和除去活性氧的食品成分已被证明可以改善大脑的记忆和学习功能。BioPQQ 具有强大的抗氧化作用，比维生素 c 和维生素 e 都要高5倍，维生素 c 和维生素 e 对大脑神经元有潜在的保护作用，后者很容易受到氧化应激的致命伤害。除了作为一种抗氧化剂，研究表明，BioPQQ 可以促进神经再生
By potentially stimulating Nerve Growth Factor (NGF), BioPQQ may help nerves in the brain and other organs grow or recover after being damaged8,9 It has been shown to inhibit neurotoxicity and to promote mitochondrial biogenesis10 — energizing cellular activity, particularly in the brain.
BioPQQ 通过潜在的刺激神经生长因子(Nerve Growth Factor，NGF) ，帮助大脑和其他器官中的神经在受损后生长或恢复。已有研究表明，BioPQQ 能抑制神经毒性，促进线粒体生物原10活化细胞活性，尤其是在大脑中。
In vitro and animal data in cognitive function and disease
In vitro studies performed with BioPQQ suggest several mechanisms by which cognitive functions may be improved. The compound was found to affect the cell signaling pathways associated with oxidative metabolism11,12,13 a key factor in cellular aging processes, and in mitochondrial biogenesis—the production and growth of new mitochondria,14,15 the energy-generating “powerhouses” of cells.
通过 BioPQQ 进行的体外研究表明，认知功能可以通过几种机制得到改善。这种化合物被发现影响与氧化代谢物11,12,13相关的细胞信号通路，氧化代谢物11,12,13是细胞衰老过程和线粒体生物发生的关键因素ーー新线粒体的产生和生长，14,15是细胞产生能量的“动力房”。
This function of BioPQQ, as a “mitochondrial booster,” is an especially promising area of further study; research is currently underway to better understand its mechanism in detail.16,17,18
BioPQQ 的这一功能，作为“线粒体助推器” ，是一个特别有前途的进一步研究领域; 目前的研究正在进行，以更好地了解其详细机制
In other in vitro studies, BioPQQ inhibited cell death of cultured neuroblastoma cells, with greater effects at higher doses.19 BioPQQ was also effective in preventing the formation of cytotoxic amyloid fibrils associated with neurodegenerative diseases,20,21 and enhanced the synthesis of nerve growth factor, a key protein involved in the development and health of neurons.22,23
在其他的体外研究中，BioPQQ 抑制培养的神经母细胞瘤细胞的死亡，在较高剂量下具有更大的作用。 BioPQQ 还能有效地防止与神经退行性疾病相关的细胞毒性淀粉样纤维的形成，20,21并促进神经生长因子的合成，神经生长因子是神经元发育和健康的关键蛋白
Animal data also provide support for the effects of BioPQQ on improving cognition. One study24 compared cognitive functions in old rats who were given either vitamin E or BioPQQ for two weeks, measured by performance on the Morris water maze test. The results showed higher learning rates and improved memory retention in rats treated with either Vitamin E or BioPQQ, when compared with untreated controls.
动物数据也支持 BioPQQ 在提高认知方面的作用。一项研究比较了服用维生素 e 或活性维生素 qq 两周的老鼠的认知功能，这是通过 Morris水迷宫任务测试来衡量的。结果显示，与未经处理的对照组相比，经维生素 e 或 BioPQQ 处理的大鼠学习速度更快，记忆力更好。
Another study25 used the Morris water maze test to evaluate cognitive responses to experimentally-induced oxidative stress. Young rats were treated with BioPQQ, a combination of BioPQQ and CoQ10 (ubiquinone, also in the quinone family), or a placebo for 9 weeks, and exposed to hyperoxia conditions. In comparison to controls, memory retention increased significantly in the rats given BioPQQ either alone or in combination, 5 days after hyperoxia conditions. Memory retention was even higher in the combination-treated group after 7 days of hyperoxia. The results suggested that BioPQQ may have protective effects in the brain against oxidative stress-induced neurogenerative damage.
另一项研究使用 Morris水迷宫任务测试来评估对实验诱导的氧化应激的认知反应。用 BioPQQ，一种 BioPQQ 和辅酶 q10(泛醌，也属于醌家族)或安慰剂治疗幼鼠9周，暴露于高氧条件下。与对照组相比，给予 BioPQQ 单独或联合治疗的大鼠，在高氧条件下5天后，记忆保持明显增加。联合治疗组在高氧7天后记忆保持率更高。结果提示，活体 qq 对氧化应激引起的神经生殖损伤具有保护作用。
Highlights from Human Studies
Three recent, well-designed clinical studies have evaluated the efficacy of BioPQQ® alone or in combination with CoQ10 in middle-aged and elderly populations.
最近的三项精心设计的临床研究已经评估了 BioPQQ 单独或联合辅酶 q10在中老年人群中的疗效。
Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Disodium Salt Improves Higher Brain Function (Koikeda T et al.) 26
A 6-month placebo-controlled, double blind parallel study was conducted with 65 middle-aged-to-elderly healthy Japanese subjects (22 men, 45 women) 45-65 years old, who self- reported forgetfulness, or were identified as forgetful by a close relative.
研究1: 吡咯并喹啉醌盐改善高级脑功能(Koikeda t et al.)26一项为期6个月的安慰剂控制的双盲平行研究对65名健康的日本中老年人(22名男性，45名女性)进行了研究，他们自我报告健忘，或被近亲认定为健忘。
Subjects were screened using a Japanese version of RBANS, a standard neuropsychological battery to assess mild cognitive impairment, with components to assess delayed and immediate memory, attention, language, and visual-spatial awareness. Those individuals who scored between 29-52, indicating mild impairment, were selected. Those who had prior diseases or took medications, foods, herbs or supplements that could affect results (such as anticoagulants or MAO inhibitors, DHA, or gingko biloba) were excluded.
受试者使用日本版本的 RBANS 进行筛选，RBANS 是评估轻微认知障碍的标准神经心理学成套系统，包括评估延迟和即时记忆、注意力、语言和视觉空间意识的组成部分。那些得分在29-52之间，表明轻度损伤的个体被选中。那些有先前疾病或服用药物、食物、草药或补充剂(如抗凝血剂或 MAO 抑制剂、 DHA 或银杏叶)的患者被排除在外。
The subjects were randomized to receive a 4-capsule daily regimen: either BioPQQ 20 mg (n=22), BioPQQ 20 mg and CoQ10 300 mg (n=21) or placebo (n=22). Throughout the 6-month study period, the subjects maintained their usual eating and exercise habits. RBANS testing was administered at baseline and again at weeks 8, 16, and 24.
受试者随机接受4粒胶囊的日常治疗: BioPQQ 20mg (n = 22) ，BioPQQ 20mg (n = 21) ，辅酶 q10300mg (n = 21) ，或安慰剂(n = 22)。在为期6个月的研究期间，受试者保持了正常的饮食和运动习惯。RBANS 测试在基线时进行，第8、16和24周再次进行。
While all three groups experienced similar, significant improvement in total RBANS scores by the end of the study, the BioPQQ + CoQ10 group experienced significantly greater improvement in short-term memory scores (p<0.003). For those subjects given BioPQQ alone, there was a trend toward short-term memory improvement.
在研究结束时，所有三组的 RBANS 总分都有了类似的显著改善，而 BioPQQ + CoQ10组的短期记忆分数有了显著改善(p < 0.003)。对于那些单独使用 BioPQQ 的受试者，短期记忆有改善的趋势。
When data was stratified to compare individuals with low and high memory scores at baseline, the BioPQQ + CoQ10 treatment in the lower-scoring group (n=32) had significantly greater improvements at 8 and 16 weeks, compared to placebo (see Figure 1).
当数据被分层以比较基线记忆得分低和高的个体时，得分低的组(n = 32)的 BioPQQ + 辅酶 q10治疗在8周和16周时与安慰剂组相比有显著的改善(见图1)。
Figure 1 RBANS Short-Term Memory Scores among Subjects with Lower Baseline Scores
图1基线分数较低的受试者的 RBANS 短期记忆分数
This suggests that the beneficial effects of BioPQQ on short-term memory are more pronounced in people with lower memory scores.
BioPQQ was also associated with improvements in higher brain functioning, an important measure of quality of life in elderly people. At week 16, differences in visual-spatial awareness were significantly better in the BioPQQ group versus the placebo group.
BioPQQ 还与大脑功能的改善有关，大脑功能是老年人生活质量的重要衡量标准。在第16周，与安慰剂组相比，BioPQQ 组在视觉空间意识方面的差异明显好于对照组。
There were no reported side effects in any treatment group during the 6-month study period, suggesting that BioPQQ was well tolerated, with or without CoQ10.
在6个月的研究期间，没有报道任何治疗组的副作用，这表明 BioPQQ 耐受性良好，有或没有辅酶 q10。
Summary: The results suggest that BioPQQ, alone or combined with CoQ10, is safe and useful in improving higher brain function—and indicate its potential in preventing or reversing higher brain function decline cause by aging and oxidative stress.
总结: 研究结果表明，BioPQQ，单独使用或与辅酶 q10联合使用，在改善更高级的大脑功能方面是安全和有用的，并且表明它在防止或扭转因老化和氧化应激而引起的高级大脑功能衰退方面的潜力。
Effect of Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (BioPQQ) on Mental Status of Middle-Aged and Elderly Persons (Nakano M et al.)27
This 3-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel trial involved 71 healthy, middle-aged adults (29 men, 42 women, ages 45-65) with no cognitive abnormalities. After dividing subjects into three groups—which were selected to ensure an equal balance of cognitive function and gender in each—the groups were randomized to receive either BioPQQ 20 mg (n=22), BioPQQ 20 mg and CoQ10 300 mg (n=24) or placebo (n=23).
研究2: 吡咯并喹啉醌对中老年人精神状态的影响27这项为期3个月的双盲安慰剂对照平行试验涉及71名没有认知异常的健康中年人(29名男性，42名女性，年龄在45-65岁之间)。将受试者分为三组，每组均选择性别和认知功能平衡的对照组，随机分为三组，分别服用 BioPQQ 20mg (n = 22)、 BioPQQ 20mg 和辅酶 q10300mg (n = 24)或安慰剂(n = 23)。
During the 12-week study period, subjects took their treatment or placebo supplement daily after breakfast and followed their usual lifestyle habits. They kept diaries to note any adverse experiences and were given regular medical examinations by a physician.
To assess mental status, two standard tests were administered at baseline and at the end of the study (see “How Mental Status was Assessed,” below, for details).