α-酮戊二酸的健康益处,副作用与剂量

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The Health Benefits of Alpha-Ketoglutaric Acid

Supplement may enhance athletic performance and metabolism

补充营养可以提高运动能力和新陈代谢

By 作者 Cathy Wong 凯茜 · 王  Medically reviewed by 医学评论: Lana Butner, ND, LAc 拉娜 · 巴特纳(Lana Butner) ,ND,LAc on August

Woman running road race, grabbing cup of water
Yellow Dog Productions / Getty Images 黄狗制作/盖蒂图片社

Alpha-ketoglutaric acid is a biological compound found naturally in the human body. Also available as a dietary supplement, alpha-ketoglutaric acid plays a key role in the Krebs cycle (a series of chemical reactions used to release stored energy). Alpha-ketoglutaric acid supplements are purported to offer a variety of health benefits, including enhanced athletic performance and improved metabolism.

α-酮戊二酸是一种在人体内自然存在的生物化合物。也可以作为膳食补充剂,α-酮戊二酸在克雷布斯循环(一系列用于释放储存能量的化学反应)中起着关键作用。α-酮戊二酸补充剂据说能提供多种健康益处,包括提高运动能力和改善新陈代谢。

Many of these claims are based on how alpha-ketoglutaric acid works in the body, including its role in regulating the immune system and bone development. Whether taking a supplement can enhance these biological functions is uncertain at best.

许多这些说法都是基于 α-酮戊二酸在人体内的作用,包括它在调节免疫系统和骨骼发育中的作用。服用补充剂是否能增强这些生物功能还不确定。

Also Known As

也被称为

  • Alpha-ketoglutarate α- 酮戊二酸
  • 2-ketoglutaric acid α-酮戊二酸
  • 2-oxoglutarate 2- 氧戊二酸
  • 2-oxoglutaric acid α-酮戊二酸

7 Best Supplements Reviewed 7个最佳补充剂评论

Health Benefits 健康益处

In heart surgery, alpha-ketoglutaric acid is sometimes delivered intravenously (into a vein) to reduce damage to the heart muscle due to the reduced blood flow. Doing so may also improve blood flow to the kidney following the surgery.

在心脏手术中,α-酮戊二酸有时通过静脉注射,以减少血流量减少对心肌的损伤。这样做也可以改善手术后肾脏的血流量。

Its use as a supplement is far less certain. Alternative practitioners believe that alpha-ketoglutaric acid can treat or prevent a wide variety of health conditions, including:

它作为一种补充剂的用途还远不确定。另类医生认为,α-酮戊二酸可以治疗或预防各种各样的健康问题,包括:

  • Cataracts 白内障
  • Chronic kidney disease 慢性肾病
  • Hepatomegaly (enlarged liver) 肝肿大(肝脏肿大)
  • Intestinal toxemia 肠毒血症
  • Oral thrush 口腔鹅口疮
  • Osteoporosis 骨质疏松症
  • Tendinopathy 肌腱病
  • Yeast infections 酵母菌感染

Because of its role in releasing stored energy, alpha-ketoglutaric acid is often marketed as a sports performance supplement. Some proponents even assert that the supplement’s antioxidant effects can slow aging.

由于其在释放储存能量方面的作用,α-酮戊二酸通常作为一种运动性能补充剂销售。一些支持者甚至声称这种补充剂的抗氧化作用可以延缓衰老。

As is often the case with supplements that claim to treat multiple unrelated conditions, the evidence supporting these claims is weak. Some, like the supplement’s “anti-aging” properties (based largely on a 2014 studyinvolving nematode worms), border on the improbable.

与声称治疗多种不相关疾病的营养补充剂一样,支持这些说法的证据不足。其中一些,如补充剂的“抗衰老”特性(主要基于2014年对线虫的研究) ,几乎是不可能的。

With that being said, a few early studies have hinted at the potential benefits of alpha-ketoglutaric acid supplementation. Here is what some of the current research says:

尽管如此,一些早期研究已经暗示了 α-酮戊二酸补充剂的潜在益处。以下是目前的一些研究结果:

Chronic Kidney Disease 慢性肾病

Alpha-ketoglutaric acid has been used since the late-1990s to help break down and absorb protein in people on hemodialysis who require a low-protein diet. Recent evidence suggests that it may also delay the need for dialysis in people with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD).

自上世纪90年代末以来,α-酮戊二酸已被用于帮助需要低蛋白饮食的血液透析患者分解和吸收蛋白质。最近的证据表明,它也可能推迟了晚期慢性肾脏疾病(CKD)患者的透析需要。

According to a 2017 study in the journal PLoS One, researchers identified and followed 1,483 people with advanced CKD who used an alpha-ketoglutaric acid supplement called Ketosteril. The average duration of the follow-up was 1.57 years.

根据2017年发表在《公共科学图书馆 · 综合》杂志上的一项研究,研究人员确认并跟踪了1483名使用 α-酮戊二酸补充剂酮甾醇的晚期慢性肾病患者。平均随访时间为1.57年。

Compared to a matched set of individuals who didn’t take the supplement, those who did were less likely to require long-term dialysis. The benefits extended only to those who took more than 5.5 tablets per day, indicating the effects were dose-dependent.

与一组相匹配的没有服用补充剂的人相比,服用补充剂的人需要长期透析的可能性更小。这些好处只扩展到那些每天服用5.5片以上的人,这表明效果是剂量依赖性的。

Despite the positive findings, it is unclear what role alpha-ketoglutaric acid played in comparison to the supplement’s other active ingredients. Further research is needed.

尽管有这些积极的发现,但目前还不清楚 α-酮戊二酸在补充剂的其他活性成分中所起的作用。需要进一步的研究。

Gastrointestinal Health 肠胃健康

Alpha-ketoglutaric acid supplements are believed to be anticatabolic, meaning that it slows or prevents or catabolism (the breakdown of tissues). By definition, a catabolic process is opposite to an anabolic process (in which tissues are built).

α-酮戊二酸补充剂被认为是抗代谢的,也就是说它可以减缓或防止分解代谢(组织的破坏)。根据定义,分解代谢过程是相反的合成代谢过程(其中组织建成)。

2012 study in the Italian Journal of Animal Science reported that alpha-ketoglutaric acid prevented the breakdown of the intestines in lab rats fed a protein-free diet for 14 days. Rather than experiencing damage to the finger-like villi of the intestines—the expected outcome—the rats fed alpha-ketoglutaric acid had no visible damage compared to rats that weren’t.

2012年《意大利动物科学杂志》上的一项研究报告说,α-酮戊二酸可以防止喂食无蛋白质饮食的实验鼠肠道破裂14天。与预期结果相反,喂食 α-酮戊二酸的大鼠肠道的手指状绒毛没有明显损伤,而喂食其他食物的大鼠没有明显损伤。

Moreover, the rats provided the supplements were able to maintain normal growth despite the total lack of protein. Higher doses conferred to even better results.

此外,尽管完全缺乏蛋白质,大鼠提供的补充剂能够维持正常的生长。更高的剂量会带来更好的结果。

The findings appear to support alpha-ketoglutaric acid’s anticatabolic effects. In addition to its application in chronic kidney disease, alpha-ketoglutaric acid may also aid people with intestinal toxemia and malabsorption disorders like celiac disease. Further research is needed.

这些发现似乎支持 α-酮戊二酸的抗蛋白合成作用。除了在慢性肾脏疾病中的应用,α-酮戊二酸还可以帮助患有肠毒血症和腹腔疾病等吸收障碍的人。需要进一步的研究。

Athletic Performance 运动表现

By contrast, the anticatabolic effects of alpha-ketoglutaric acid appear to fall short when used for the purpose of muscle growth and athletic performance.

相比之下,当用于肌肉生长和运动表现时,α-酮戊二酸的抗蛋白合成作用似乎不足。

According to a 2012 study in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, alpha-ketoglutaric acid had no tangible effect on either muscle strength or exercise endurance in 16 men tasked with a resistance training workout.

根据2012年《国际运动营养学会杂志》上的一项研究,在16名参与抵抗力训练的男性中,α-酮戊二酸对肌肉力量或运动耐力没有明显的影响。

For this study, half of the men were given 3,000-milligrams (mg) of alpha-ketoglutaric acid, while the other half were given a placebo 45 minutes before doing bench press and leg press exercises. The following week, the supplements were flipped, with each half getting the alternate drug.

在这项研究中,一半的人服用3000毫克 α-酮戊二酸,而另一半人在做卧推和腿部推举运动前45分钟服用安慰剂。接下来的一周,这些补充剂被翻转过来,每一半都服用了替代药物。

Athletic performance was based on the total load volume (TLV) of the exercises performed in tandem with pre- and post-exercise heart rates.

运动成绩是基于总负荷量(TLV)与运动前和运动后心率同步进行的练习。

Based on the findings, alpha-ketoglutaric acid offered no statistical improvements in either upper or lower body strength or the aerobic capacity of the athletes.

基于这些发现,α-酮戊二酸没有提供任何统计学上的改善,无论是在上身或下身的力量或有氧能力的运动员。

What these findings demonstrate is the absence of catabolic response is not the same thing as an anabolic response, especially among athletes.

这些发现证明了分解代谢反应的缺失和合成代谢反应是不一样的,特别是在运动员中。Pros and Cons of Pre-Workout Supplements 运动前补充剂的利与弊

Possible Side Effects 可能的副作用

Alpha-ketoglutaric acid is considered safe and well-tolerated. Studies investigating the effects of alpha-ketoglutaric acid reported few adverse symptoms after three years of use.

α-酮戊二酸被认为是安全和耐受性良好的。研究调查 α-酮戊二酸的影响报告在使用三年后几乎没有不良症状。

As a compound made from non-essential amino acids, alpha-ketoglutaric acid is not a substance on which you can readily overdose. Any excess in the body will either be excreted in urine or broken down into the basic amino acid building blocks for other purposes.

作为一种由非必需氨基酸制成的化合物,α-酮戊二酸不是一种很容易过量摄入的物质。身体中的任何多余物质要么通过尿液排出,要么分解为基本的氨基酸组成单元,用于其他目的。

With that said, the safety of alpha-ketoglutaric acid in pregnant women, nursing mothers, and children has not been established. This includes children with rare metabolism disorders such as alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase deficiency (in which alpha-ketoglutaric acid levels are abnormally elevated).

尽管如此,α-酮戊二酸对孕妇、哺乳期母亲和儿童的安全性还没有得到证实。这包括患有罕见代谢紊乱的儿童,如 α- 酮戊二酸脱氢酶缺乏症(α-酮戊二酸水平异常升高)。

To be safe, always speak with your doctor, pediatrician, or OB/GYN before using alpha-ketoglutaric acid or any other dietary supplement.

为了安全起见,在使用 α-酮戊二酸或任何其他膳食补充剂之前,一定要和你的医生、儿科医生或妇产科医生谈谈。

It is unknown if alpha-ketoglutaric acid supplements can interact with other drugs.

目前还不清楚 α-酮戊二酸补充剂是否会与其他药物相互作用。

Dosage and Preparation 剂量和制剂

Alpha-ketoglutaric acid supplements are available in tablet, capsule, and powder formulations and can be readily found online or in stores specializing in dietary supplements.

α-酮戊二酸补充剂有片剂、胶囊剂和粉剂配方,在网上或专营营养补充剂的商店都可以买到。

There are no universal guidelines for the appropriate use of alpha-ketoglutaric acids. Supplements are typically sold in dosages ranging from 300 milligrams (mg) to 1,000 mg taken once daily with or without food. Doses of up to 3,000 mg have been used in studies with no adverse effects.

对于 α- 酮戊二酸的适当使用没有通用的指南。补充剂通常以300毫克(毫克)到1000毫克的剂量出售,每天一次,不论是否食用。在研究中使用的剂量高达3000毫克,没有不良影响。

Alpha keto-glutaric acid cannot be obtained from food. Rather, it is synthesized from non-essential amino acids that the body produces from its own cells.

α- 酮戊二酸不能从食物中获得。相反,它是由身体自身细胞产生的非必需氨基酸合成的。

As a general rule, never exceed the dose on the product label.

一般来说,不要超过产品标签上的剂量。

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