The Health Benefits of Alpha-Ketoglutaric Acid
Supplement may enhance athletic performance and metabolism
By 作者 Cathy Wong 凯茜 · 王 Medically reviewed by 医学评论: Lana Butner, ND, LAc 拉娜 · 巴特纳(Lana Butner) ，ND，LAc on August
Alpha-ketoglutaric acid is a biological compound found naturally in the human body. Also available as a dietary supplement, alpha-ketoglutaric acid plays a key role in the Krebs cycle (a series of chemical reactions used to release stored energy). Alpha-ketoglutaric acid supplements are purported to offer a variety of health benefits, including enhanced athletic performance and improved metabolism.
Many of these claims are based on how alpha-ketoglutaric acid works in the body, including its role in regulating the immune system and bone development. Whether taking a supplement can enhance these biological functions is uncertain at best.
Also Known As
- Alpha-ketoglutarate α- 酮戊二酸
- 2-ketoglutaric acid α-酮戊二酸
- 2-oxoglutarate 2- 氧戊二酸
- 2-oxoglutaric acid α-酮戊二酸
Health Benefits 健康益处
In heart surgery, alpha-ketoglutaric acid is sometimes delivered intravenously (into a vein) to reduce damage to the heart muscle due to the reduced blood flow. Doing so may also improve blood flow to the kidney following the surgery.
Its use as a supplement is far less certain. Alternative practitioners believe that alpha-ketoglutaric acid can treat or prevent a wide variety of health conditions, including:
- Cataracts 白内障
- Chronic kidney disease 慢性肾病
- Hepatomegaly (enlarged liver) 肝肿大(肝脏肿大)
- Intestinal toxemia 肠毒血症
- Oral thrush 口腔鹅口疮
- Osteoporosis 骨质疏松症
- Tendinopathy 肌腱病
- Yeast infections 酵母菌感染
Because of its role in releasing stored energy, alpha-ketoglutaric acid is often marketed as a sports performance supplement. Some proponents even assert that the supplement’s antioxidant effects can slow aging.
As is often the case with supplements that claim to treat multiple unrelated conditions, the evidence supporting these claims is weak. Some, like the supplement’s “anti-aging” properties (based largely on a 2014 studyinvolving nematode worms), border on the improbable.
With that being said, a few early studies have hinted at the potential benefits of alpha-ketoglutaric acid supplementation. Here is what some of the current research says:
Chronic Kidney Disease 慢性肾病
Alpha-ketoglutaric acid has been used since the late-1990s to help break down and absorb protein in people on hemodialysis who require a low-protein diet. Recent evidence suggests that it may also delay the need for dialysis in people with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD).
According to a 2017 study in the journal PLoS One, researchers identified and followed 1,483 people with advanced CKD who used an alpha-ketoglutaric acid supplement called Ketosteril. The average duration of the follow-up was 1.57 years.
根据2017年发表在《公共科学图书馆 · 综合》杂志上的一项研究，研究人员确认并跟踪了1483名使用 α-酮戊二酸补充剂酮甾醇的晚期慢性肾病患者。平均随访时间为1.57年。
Compared to a matched set of individuals who didn’t take the supplement, those who did were less likely to require long-term dialysis. The benefits extended only to those who took more than 5.5 tablets per day, indicating the effects were dose-dependent.
Despite the positive findings, it is unclear what role alpha-ketoglutaric acid played in comparison to the supplement’s other active ingredients. Further research is needed.
Gastrointestinal Health 肠胃健康
Alpha-ketoglutaric acid supplements are believed to be anticatabolic, meaning that it slows or prevents or catabolism (the breakdown of tissues). By definition, a catabolic process is opposite to an anabolic process (in which tissues are built).
A 2012 study in the Italian Journal of Animal Science reported that alpha-ketoglutaric acid prevented the breakdown of the intestines in lab rats fed a protein-free diet for 14 days. Rather than experiencing damage to the finger-like villi of the intestines—the expected outcome—the rats fed alpha-ketoglutaric acid had no visible damage compared to rats that weren’t.
Moreover, the rats provided the supplements were able to maintain normal growth despite the total lack of protein. Higher doses conferred to even better results.
The findings appear to support alpha-ketoglutaric acid’s anticatabolic effects. In addition to its application in chronic kidney disease, alpha-ketoglutaric acid may also aid people with intestinal toxemia and malabsorption disorders like celiac disease. Further research is needed.
Athletic Performance 运动表现
By contrast, the anticatabolic effects of alpha-ketoglutaric acid appear to fall short when used for the purpose of muscle growth and athletic performance.
According to a 2012 study in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, alpha-ketoglutaric acid had no tangible effect on either muscle strength or exercise endurance in 16 men tasked with a resistance training workout.
For this study, half of the men were given 3,000-milligrams (mg) of alpha-ketoglutaric acid, while the other half were given a placebo 45 minutes before doing bench press and leg press exercises. The following week, the supplements were flipped, with each half getting the alternate drug.
Athletic performance was based on the total load volume (TLV) of the exercises performed in tandem with pre- and post-exercise heart rates.
Based on the findings, alpha-ketoglutaric acid offered no statistical improvements in either upper or lower body strength or the aerobic capacity of the athletes.
What these findings demonstrate is the absence of catabolic response is not the same thing as an anabolic response, especially among athletes.
这些发现证明了分解代谢反应的缺失和合成代谢反应是不一样的，特别是在运动员中。Pros and Cons of Pre-Workout Supplements 运动前补充剂的利与弊
Possible Side Effects 可能的副作用
Alpha-ketoglutaric acid is considered safe and well-tolerated. Studies investigating the effects of alpha-ketoglutaric acid reported few adverse symptoms after three years of use.
As a compound made from non-essential amino acids, alpha-ketoglutaric acid is not a substance on which you can readily overdose. Any excess in the body will either be excreted in urine or broken down into the basic amino acid building blocks for other purposes.
With that said, the safety of alpha-ketoglutaric acid in pregnant women, nursing mothers, and children has not been established. This includes children with rare metabolism disorders such as alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase deficiency (in which alpha-ketoglutaric acid levels are abnormally elevated).
尽管如此，α-酮戊二酸对孕妇、哺乳期母亲和儿童的安全性还没有得到证实。这包括患有罕见代谢紊乱的儿童，如 α- 酮戊二酸脱氢酶缺乏症(α-酮戊二酸水平异常升高)。
To be safe, always speak with your doctor, pediatrician, or OB/GYN before using alpha-ketoglutaric acid or any other dietary supplement.
It is unknown if alpha-ketoglutaric acid supplements can interact with other drugs.
Dosage and Preparation 剂量和制剂
Alpha-ketoglutaric acid supplements are available in tablet, capsule, and powder formulations and can be readily found online or in stores specializing in dietary supplements.
There are no universal guidelines for the appropriate use of alpha-ketoglutaric acids. Supplements are typically sold in dosages ranging from 300 milligrams (mg) to 1,000 mg taken once daily with or without food. Doses of up to 3,000 mg have been used in studies with no adverse effects.
对于 α- 酮戊二酸的适当使用没有通用的指南。补充剂通常以300毫克(毫克)到1000毫克的剂量出售，每天一次，不论是否食用。在研究中使用的剂量高达3000毫克，没有不良影响。
Alpha keto-glutaric acid cannot be obtained from food. Rather, it is synthesized from non-essential amino acids that the body produces from its own cells.
As a general rule, never exceed the dose on the product label.